Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)

Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)


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ref-erence to help guide health professionals in the United States and Canada
in their day-to-day task of assessing and planning for the nutrient needs of
individuals and groups of people. The book also provides educators with a tool
for guiding students in the understanding of the DRI concept and use of the
reference values. It is derived from work authored by the Food and Nutrition
Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM).
This book is not meant to replace the original DRI series of nutrient refer-
ence values published between 1997 and 2005 nor is it intended to be a thor-
ough representation of the series. Based on material from the original DRI se-
ries, this book stays true to the findings and recommendations from the original
reports. Without introducing new data or conclusions, this document recasts
essential ideas from the original reports in an accessible and more compact
form.
The DRI values and paradigm replace the former Recommended Dietary
Allowances (RDAs) for the United States and Recommended Nutrient Intakes
(RNIs) for Canada. In the past, RDAs and RNIs were the primary values avail-
able to U.S. and Canadian health professionals for planning and assessing the
diets of individuals and groups. The DRIs represent a more complete set of
values. They were developed in recognition of the growing and diverse uses of
quantitative reference values and the availability of more sophisticated approaches
for dietary planning and assessment purposes.
Although all reference values in this book are based on data, available data
were often sparse or drawn from studies with significant limitations in address-
ing various questions confronted by the original DRI panel and subcommittees.
Thus, although governed by scientific rationale, informed judgments were of-
ten required in setting reference values. Where data were available, criteria of
nutritional adequacy were carefully identified; these criteria are listed in tables
in each nutrient chapter.
Readers are urged to recognize that the DRI process is iterative in character.
We expect that the DRI conceptual framework will continue to evolve and be
improved as new information becomes available and is applied to an expanding
list of nutrients and other food components. Thus, because the DRI activity is
ongoing, comments were solicited widely and received on the originally pub-
lished reports of this series. With more experience, the proposed models for
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
viii PREFACE
establishing reference intakes of nutrients and other food components that play
significant roles in promoting and sustaining health and optimal functioning
will be refined. Also, as new information or new methods of analysis are adopted,
these reference values undoubtedly will be reassessed. This book will be up-
dated in the future as the original series is revised.
This book has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their
diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures
approved by the National Research Council\u2019s Report Review Committee. The
purpose of this independent review is to provide candid, confidential, and criti-
cal comments that will assist the institution in making its published book as
sound as possible and to ensure that the book meets institutional standards. We
wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Lawrence
Appel, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions; Stephanie A. Atkinson, McMaster
University; Susan I. Barr, University of British Columbia; Ann M. Coulston, Ely
Lilly and Co.; John W. Erdman, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign;
Norman I. Krinsky, Tufts University; Joanne R. Lupton, Texas A&M University;
Suzanne Murphy, University of Hawaii; Roy M. Pitkin, University of California,
Los Angeles; Robert M. Russell, Tufts University.
Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and sug-
gestions, they were not asked to endorse nor did they see the final draft of the
book before its release and publication. The review of this report was overseen
by Clyde J. Behney, who was responsible for making certain that an indepen-
dent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional
procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered.
The Institute of Medicine gratefully acknowledges Health Canada\u2019s sup-
port and participation in this initiative. This close collaboration represents a
pioneering step in the harmonization of nutrient reference intakes in North
America. In particular, the Food and Nutrition Board wishes to extend special
thanks to our Health Canada partners who helped refine drafts and provided
invaluable comments that vastly improved the project: Mary Bush, Danielle
Brulé, Margaret Cheney, Krista Esslinger, Linda Greene-Finestone, and Sylvie
St-Pierre. We also express our gratitude and thanks to Health Canada for per-
mitting incorporation of materials on the Dietary Reference Intakes extracted
from The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2, Nutrition Focus: A Guide to
Accessing and Interpreting the Data, published by Health Canada in 2006.
The consultants for this project\u2014Johanna T. Dwyer, Rachel K. Johnson,
Rena Mendelson, Esther F. Myers, Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, Linda G.
Snetselaar, Huguette Turgeon-O\u2019Brien, and Susan Whiting\u2014ably performed their
work under severe time pressures (see Appendix B for biographical sketches).
All gave their time and effort willingly and without financial reward; the public
and the science and practice of nutrition are among the major beneficiaries of
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
PREFACE ix
their dedication. This project would not have been undertaken and completed
without the dedicated work of the project staff, in particular, Jennifer Otten
who co-wrote and managed the project and its many iterations, Jennifer Pitzi
Hellwig who co-wrote and copyedited parts of the book, Mary Kalamaras who
guided initial plans and copyedited a very complex and complicated manu-
script, and Linda D. Meyers who oversaw the project and never hesitated to
assist when help was needed. The intellectual and managerial contributions
made by these individuals to the project were critical. Sincere thanks also go to
other IOM and National Academies staff, including Ricky Washington, Gerri
Kennedo, Ann Merchant, Virginia Bryant, Barbara Kline Pope, Estelle Miller,
Will Mason, Lara Andersen, Sally Stanfield, Charles Baum, Sally Groom, Dorothy
Lewis, Stephen Mautner, Marc Gold, Linda Kilroy, Anton Bandy, Gary Walker,
Vivian Tillman, Bronwyn Schrecker Jamrok, Tyjen Tsai, and Sandra Amamoo-
Kakra.
I also want to extend my personal gratitude to the many volunteers who
served the Institute of Medicine and the nation as members of the Food and
Nutrition Board, members of the committees who prepared the DRI series and
reviewers of the draft reports in that series. Their dedication and expertise in
reviewing, interpreting, and translating scientific evidence into nutrient refer-
ence values is a substantial contribution to the public\u2019s health.
Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D.
President, Institute of Medicine
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
CONTENTS xi
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION 1
PART I: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION 3
Introduction