Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)

Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)


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equate diet is consumed.
Added Sugars
BASIS FOR RECOMMENDATIONS
It has been shown the increasing intakes of added sugars can result in decreased
intakes of certain micronutrients in United States subpopulations. This can oc-
cur because of the abundance of added sugars in energy-dense, nutrient-poor
foods in a diet. As such, it is suggested that adults and children consume no
more than 25 percent of energy from added sugars to ensure sufficient con-
sumption of essential micronutrients. Note that a daily intake of added sugars
that individuals should aim for to achieve a healthy diet was not set. Foods
containing added sugars and few micronutrients include soft drinks, fruit drinks,
cakes, cookies, and candies.
The impact of total sugar intake on the intake of micronutrients does
not appear to be as great as for added sugars. Total sugars include both the
added sugars and the naturally occurring sugars found in fruits, milk, and
dairy products.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
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76 DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 2 Relationship of Macronutrients and Physical Activity to
Chronic Disease
Energy Fat Protein
Cancer \u2022 Animal studies \u2022 High fat intakes have \u2022 No clear role for total
suggest that been implicated in protein has yet
energy restriction development of certain emerged.
may inhibit cell cancers, although
proliferation and evidence is mixed.
tumor growth. \u2022 Epidemiological studies
\u2022 Increased childhood have shown an inverse
energy intakes have relationship between fish
been associated with consumption and risk of
increased cancer breast and colorectal
mortality. cancer, possibly due
\u2022 Excess energy to protective effects of
contributes to n-3 fatty acids.
obesity, which may
increase risk of
certain cancers.
Heart Disease \u2022 Excess energy \u2022 Increased saturated fat \u2022 Independent effects
contributes to intake can increase total of protein on heart
obesity, which and LDL blood disease mortality
increases risk of cholesterol levels. have not been shown.
heart disease. \u2022 Increasing intakes of \u2022 Soy-based protein
trans fatty acids and may reduce blood
cholesterol increase total cholesterol, but the
and LDL blood cholesterol evidence is mixed.
levels, although there is
wide interindividual
variation in serum
cholesterol response to
dietary cholesterol.
\u2022 Monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fatty
acids decrease total and
LDL blood cholesterol
levels.
\u2022 High intakes of n-6 and
n-3 polyunsaturated fats
are associated with
decreased risk of heart
disease.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
MACRONUTRIENTS, HEALTHFUL DIETS, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 77
Carbohydrate Fiber Physical Activity
\u2022 Several case-control \u2022 High fiber diets may \u2022 Regular exercise has been
studies have shown protect against colorectal negatively correlated with risk of
increased risk of cancer, though the colon cancer.
colorectal cancer in evidence is conflicting. \u2022 Numerous epidemiological studies
people with high intakes \u2022 Fiber may protect suggest that regular physical
of sugar-rich foods. against hormone-related activity decreases risk of breast
\u2022 High vegetable and fruit cancers including cancer.
intake and avoidance of prostate, endometrial, \u2022 Exercise may help compensate for
foods with highly refined and ovarian cancer. potential cancer-promoting effects
sugars have been \u2022 Certain cereal foods may of excess energy intake.
negatively correlated to protect against some \u2022 Exercise may bolster the immune
risk of colon cancer. types and stages of system.
breast cancer.
\u2022 High carbohydrate (low \u2022 Dietary fiber, particularly \u2022 Numerous studies have shown
fat) intakes tend to naturally occurring an inverse relationship between
increase plasma viscous fiber, reduces exercise and heart disease
triacylglycerol and decrease total and LDL cholesterol mortality.
plasma HDL cholesterol levels. \u2022 Regular exercise increases HDL
levels. These effects are \u2022 Reduced rates of heart cholesterol; decreases
more extreme if the source disease have been triacylglycerol, blood pressure,
is monosaccharides, observed in individuals and risk of cardiac arrhythmias;
especially fructose. consuming high fiber enhances fibrinolysis, glucose
diets. effectiveness, and insulin
\u2022 Dietary fiber intake has sensitivity; and lessens
been shown to be platelet adherence.
negatively associated with
hypertension in men.
continued
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
78 DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS
Dental Caries
Type II \u2022 Excess energy \u2022 Some studies show a
Diabetes contributes to obesity, correlation between high
Mellitus which may increase fat intakes and insulin
risk of Type II diabetes. resistance, but it is not
\u2022 Obesity, particularly clear whether the
abdominal obesity, is association is due to fat
a risk factor for Type or to obesity.
II diabetes.
Obesity \u2022 Excess energy intake \u2022 Available data on whether \u2022 Available data on
causes obesity. diets high in total fat whether diets high in
increase the risk for protein are associated
obesity are conflicting; this with obesity are
may be partly due to mixed: some have
underreporting of food shown a positive
intake, notably fat intake. association with
protein intake and
body fatness, others
have demonstrated
weight loss.
Bone Health \u2022 The relationship
between protein intake
and bone health is
very controversial with
some studies showing
bone loss and
osteoporosis in
relationship to high
intakes and others
showing no
association in the
presence of adequate
calcium intakes.
TABLE 2 Continued
Energy Fat Protein
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
MACRONUTRIENTS, HEALTHFUL DIETS, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 79
\u2022 Sugars play a role in
development of dental
caries (as do fluoride, oral
hygiene and frequency of
food intake).
\u2022 While there is little evidence \u2022 Viscous soluble fibers \u2022 Increased physical activity levels
that total carbohydrate is may attenuate the insulin improve insulin sensitivity in
associated with Type II response and thus protect people with Type II diabetes.
diabetes, there may be against Type II diabetes. \u2022 Physical activity can reduce
increased risk when the risk of Type II diabetes and can
glycemic index of a meal, reduce total and abdominal
rather than total obesity, which are risk factors
carbohydrate, is considered. for Type II diabetes.
\u2022 Published reports have \u2022 Intervention studies \u2022 Physical inactivity is a
produced conflicting suggest that high fiber major risk factor for
results about the existence diets may assist in weight development of
of a direct link between loss, although evidence obesity.
high sugar intakes and overall is mixed.
obesity; this may be partly
due to underreporting of
food intake.
\u2022 Physical activity increases bone
mass in children and adolescents
and maintains bone mass
in adults.
\u2022 Physical activity enhances
muscle strength, coordination, and
flexibility, which may prevent falls
and fractures in elderly adults.
Carbohydrate Fiber Physical Activity
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