Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)

Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)


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of energy leads to the adaptation to high
levels of energy intake with weight gain and an increased risk
of chronic diseases, including Type II diabetes, hypertension,
CHD, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and some
types of cancer.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
TABLE 1 Physical Activity Recommendations
ADULT
An average of 60 minutes per day of moderately intense physical activity (e.g.,
brisk walking or jogging at 3\u20134 mph) or shorter periods of more vigorous
exertion (e.g., jogging for 30 minutes at 5.5 mph), in addition to activities
identified with a sedentary lifestyle, was associated with a normal BMI range and
is the amount of physical activity recommended for normal-weight adults.
CHILDREN
An average of 60 minutes of moderately intense daily activity is also
recommended for children.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
PART II: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 95
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Physical activity promotes health and vigor, and the lack of it is now arecognized risk factor for several chronic diseases. Observational andexperimental studies of humans and animals have provided biologically
plausible insights into the benefits of regular physical activity on the delayed
progression of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular dis-
ease, Type II diabetes, obesity, and skeletal conditions. In addition, acute or
chronic aerobic exercise may be related to favorable changes in anxiety, depres-
sion, stress reactivity, mood, self-esteem, and cognitive functioning.
Cross-sectional data from a doubly labeled water (DLW) database were
used to define a recommended level of physical activity based on the physical
activity level (PAL) that is associated with a normal body mass index (BMI) of
18.5\u201325 kg/m2. An average of 60 minutes per day of moderately intense physi-
cal activity (e.g., brisk walking or jogging at 3\u20134 mph) or shorter periods of
more vigorous exertion (e.g., jogging for 30 minutes at 5.5 mph), in addition to
activities identified with a sedentary lifestyle, is the amount of physical activity
recommended for normal-weight adults. An average of 60 minutes of moder-
ately intense daily activity is also recommended for children. This amount of
physical activity leads to an \u201cactive\u201d lifestyle. Because the Dietary Reference
Intakes are for the general healthy population, recommended levels of physical
activity for weight loss of obese individuals are not provided.
Historically, most individuals have unconsciously balanced their dietary
energy intake and total energy expenditure due to occupation-related energy
expenditure. However, occupational physical activity has significantly declined
over the years. According to the 1996 Surgeon General\u2019s Report on physical activ-
ity and health, more than 60 percent of American adults were not regularly
physically active and 25 percent were not active at all. This trend in decreased
activity by adults is similar to trends seen in children who are less active both in
and out of school. Physical activity and fitness objectives of the U.S. government\u2019s
Healthy People 2010 seek to increase the proportion of Americans who engage
in daily physical activity to improve health, fitness, and quality of life. Similar
recommendations to increase physical activity have been proposed in Canada.
Excessive physical activity can lead to overuse injuries, dehydration and
hyperthermia, hypothermia, cardiac events, and female athlete triad (loss of
menses, osteopenia, and premature osteoporosis). To prevent adverse effects,
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
96 DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS
previously sedentary people are advised to use caution when beginning a new
activity routine.
DETERMINING RECOMMENDATIONS
Cross-sectional data from a DLW database were used to define a recommended
level of physical activity for adults and children, based on the PAL associated
with a normal BMI in the healthy range of 18.5 kg/m2 up to 25 kg/m2. PAL is the
ratio of total energy expenditure (TEE) to basal energy expenditure (BEE). The
data PAL categories were defined as sedentary (PAL \u2265 1.0 < 1.4), low active
(PAL \u2265 1.4 < 1.6), active (PAL \u2265 1.6 < 1.9), and very active (PAL \u2265 1.9 < 2.5).
Because an average of 60 minutes per day of moderate-intensity physical
activities (or shorter periods of more vigorous exertion) provides a PAL that is
associated with a normal BMI range, this is the amount of activity that is recom-
mended for normal-weight individuals. For children, the physical activity rec-
ommendation is also an average of 60 minutes of moderate-intensity daily ac-
tivity. In terms of making a realistic physical activity recommendation for busy
individuals to maintain their weight, it is important to recognize that exercise
and activity recommendations consider \u201caccumulated\u201d physical activity.
Box 1 provides examples of various physical activities at different intensi-
ties. Additional examples of activity, along with instructions for keeping a weekly
activity log, can be found in Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate,
Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005).
Special Considerations
Pregnant women: For women who have been previously physically active, con-
tinuing physical activities during pregnancy and postpartum can be advanta-
geous. However, excessive or improper activity can be injurious to the woman
and fetus.
Appropriate physical fitness during pregnancy improves glucose tolerance
and insulin action, improves emotional well-being, and helps prevent excessive
weight gain. Fitness promotes a faster delivery, and the resumption of physical
activity after pregnancy is important for restoring normal body weight. A full
description of the benefits and hazards of exercise for the pregnant woman and
fetus is beyond the scope of this publication. Women should consult with their
physicians on how to safely exercise during pregnancy.
Physical Activity Level and Energy Balance
Increasing or maintaining an active lifestyle provides an important means for
individuals to balance their energy intake with their total energy expenditure.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
PART II: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 97
BOX 1 Examples of Various Physical Activities
Mild (DPAL/hr: 0.05\u20130.10)a
Billiards
Canoeing (Leisurely)
Dancing (Ballroom)
Golf (with Cart)
Horseback Riding (Walking)
Loading/Unloading Car
Playing
Taking out Trash
Walking (2 mph)
Walking the Dog
Watering Plants
Moderate (DPAL/hr: 0.13\u20130.22)
Calisthenics (No Weight)
Cycling (Leisurely)
Gardening (No Lifting)
Golf (without Cart)
Household Tasks, Moderate Effort
Mopping
Mowing Lawn (Power Mower)
Raking Lawn
Swimming (Slow)
Vacuuming
Walking (3\u20134 mph)
Vigorous (DPAL/hr: 0.23\u20130.63)
Chopping Wood
Climbing Hills (No Load up to 5-kg Load)
Cycling (Moderately)
Dancing (Aerobic, Ballet, Ballroom, Fast)
Jogging (10-Minute Miles)
Rope Skipping
Surfing
Swimming
Tennis
a DPAL/hr is the increase in PAL caused by the activity.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
98 DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS