Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)

Livro DRI 2006 (Micronutrientes)


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(EAR), the Recommended Di-
etary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake (AI), the Tolerable Upper Intake
Level (UL), as well as the new Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
(AMDRs). The values are defined and their appropriate uses are discussed in
detail, as are the parameters that were used to develop them, such as life stage
groups and applicable populations. Also discussed are how the values differ
from each other, as well as from the previous Recommended Dietary Allow-
ances (RDAs) and Canada\u2019s Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs).
\u201cApplying the Dietary Reference Intakes\u201d provides guidance on how to use
and interpret the DRI values when assessing and planning the nutrient intakes
of both individuals and groups. It summarizes pertinent information taken from
two DRI reports published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National
Academies\u2019 Institute of Medicine. They are Dietary Reference Intakes: Applica-
tions in Dietary Assessment (2000) and Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in
Dietary Planning (2003). The chapter is divided into two main sections, \u201cWork-
ing with Individuals\u201d and \u201cWorking with Groups,\u201d which are each subdivided
into assessment and planning sections. The sections on assessment also include
explanations of the methods and equations that are used to determine whether
individuals and groups are consuming adequate levels of nutrients. In addition,
the chapter summary includes a quick-reference table on the appropriate uses
of DRI values for specific aspects of nutrition assessment and planning.
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES 5
INTRODUCTION TO THE
DIETARY REFERENCE
INTAKES
In 1941, the National Research Council issued its first set of RecommendedDietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, minerals, protein, and energy. De-veloped initially by the forerunner of the Food and Nutrition Board of the
Institute of Medicine, the recommendations were intended to serve as a guide
for good nutrition and as a \u201cyardstick\u201d by which to measure progress toward
that goal. Since then, RDAs have served as the basis for almost all federal
and state food and nutrition programs and policies. By 1989, they had been
revised nine times and expanded from a coverage of 8 original nutrients to 27
nutrients.
In 1938, the Canadian Council on Nutrition prepared the first dietary
standard designed specifically for use in Canada. The Dietary Standard for Canada
was revised in 1950, 1963, 1975, and 1983 and published by Health Canada
and its predecessors. The 1983 revision was renamed Recommended Nutrient
Intakes (RNIs) for Canadians. In the late 1980s, it was decided to incorporate
considerations of the prevention of chronic diseases as well as nutritional defi-
ciencies into the revision of the RNIs. In 1990, Nutrition Recommendations: The
Report of the Scientific Review Committee was published. The report contained
updated RNIs and recommendations on the selection of a dietary pattern that
would supply all essential nutrients, while reducing risk of chronic diseases.
Both RDA and RNI values have been widely used for planning diets, as-
sessing the adequacy of diets in individuals and populations, providing nutri-
tion education and guidance, and as a standard for nutrition labeling and forti-
fication. However, the former RDAs and RNIs were not always well suited for
these applications and the need for new values was recognized. Also of note,
the RNIs and RDAs differed from each other in their definition, revision and
publication dates, and how their data have been interpreted by both U.S. and
Canadian scientific committees.
Beginning in 1994, the Food and Nutrition Board, with support from the
U.S. and Canadian governments and others, set out to develop and implement
a new paradigm to establish recommended nutrient intakes that replaced and
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
6 DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS
expanded upon the RDAs and RNIs. Reflecting updated scientific and statistical
understandings, this decade-long review resulted in the development of the
family of reference values collectively known as the Dietary Reference Intakes
(DRIs). In contrast to the creation of the RDAs and RNIs, which involved estab-
lishing single values for each nutrient, adjusted for age, sex, and physiological
condition, the DRIs feature four reference values, only one of which, the RDA,
is familiar to the broad nutrition community (although the method by which it
is derived has changed). The DRIs are a common set of reference values for
Canada and the United States and are based on scientifically grounded relation-
ships between nutrient intakes and indicators of adequacy, as well as the pre-
vention of chronic diseases, in apparently healthy populations.
The development of the DRIs publication series (see Box 1 for a list of
publications in the series) was undertaken by the standing Committee on the
Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, two standing subcommittees
(the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and the Subcom-
mittee on Uses and Interpretation of Dietary Reference Intakes), and a series of
expert panels. Each of the panels was responsible for reviewing the require-
ments for a specific group of nutrients.
Totaling nearly 5,000 pages, these reports summarize what is known about
how nutrients function in the human body; the selection of indicators of ad-
equacy on which to determine nutrient requirements; the factors that may af-
fect how nutrients are utilized and therefore affect requirements; and how nu-
trients may be related to the prevention of chronic disease across all age groups.
They also provide specific guidance on how to use the appropriate values to
assess and plan the diets of groups and individuals.
A NEW APPROACH TO
NUTRIENT REFERENCE VALUES
Collectively referred to as the Dietary Reference Intakes, the DRIs include four
nutrient-based reference values that are used to assess and plan the diets of
healthy people. The reference values include the Estimated Average Require-
ment (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake
(AI), and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). (Brief definitions of the DRI
categories are provided in Box 2.) Developed for vitamins, minerals, macronu-
trients, and energy, these reference values replace and expand upon the previ-
ous nutrient reference values for the United States and Canada. New to the
nutrition world, the DRIs represent a significant paradigm shift in the way di-
etary reference values are established and used by practitioners, educators, and
researchers. Unlike the RDAs and RNIs (prior to 1990), which focused prima-
rily on reducing the incidence of diseases of deficiency, the DRI values are also
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES 7
intended to help individuals optimize their health, prevent disease, and avoid
consuming too much of a nutrient. Specifically, the DRIs differ from the former
RDAs and RNIs in several key ways:
\u2022 When available, data on a nutrient\u2019s safety and role in health are consid-
ered in the formulation of a recommendation, taking into account the
potential reduction in the risk of chronic degenerative