Capítulo 18 - Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment
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Capítulo 18 - Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment

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18-1

Section 18

Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment

Donald A. Dahlstrom, Ph.D., Research Professor, Chemical and Fuels Engineering
Department and Metallurgical Engineering Department, University of Utah; Member, National
Academy of Engineering, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), American Chem-
ical Society (ACS), Society of Mining, Metallurgical, and Exploration Engineers (SME) of the
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), American Soci-
ety of Engineering Education (ASEE). (Section Editor)

Richard C. Bennett, B.S. Ch.E., Registered Professional Engineer, Illinois; Member,
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), President of Crystallization Technology,
Inc.; Former President of Swenson Process Equipment, Inc. (Crystallization)

Robert C. Emmett, Jr., B.S., Ch.E., Senior Process Consultant, EIMCO Process Equip-
ment Co.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), American Institute of
Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), Society of Mining, Metallurgical, and
Exploration Engineers (SME. Gravity Sedimentation Operations; Filtration)

Peter Harriott, Ph.D., Professor, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University;
Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), American Chemical Society
(ACS). (Selection of a Solids-Liquid Separator)

Tim Laros, M.S., Mineral Processing, Senior Process Consultant, EIMCO Process Equip-
ment Co.; Member, Society of Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME of AIME). (Gravity
Sedimentation Operations; Filtration)

Wallace Leung, Sc.D., Director, Process Technology, Bird Machine Company; Member,
American Filtration and Separation Society (Director). (Centrifuges)

Chad McCleary, EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Process Consultant. (Vacuum fil-
ters)

Shelby A. Miller, Ph.D., Retired Sr. Eng., Argonne National Laboratories; Member,
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), American Chemical Society
(ACS), American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), American Institute of Chemists,
Filtration Society, New York Academy of Sciences; Registered Professional Engineer, New York.
(Leaching)

Booker Morey, Ph.D., Senior Consultant, SRI International; Member, Society of Mining,
Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME of AIME), Filtration Society, Air and Waste Management,
Association, Registered Professional Engineer, California and Massachusetts. (Expression)

James Y. Oldshue, Ph.D., President, Oldshue Technologies International, Inc.; Member,
National Academy of Engineering; Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at Beijing Insti-
tute of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China; Member, American Chemical Society (ACS),
American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), Traveler Century Club; Member of Exec-
utive Committee on the Transfer of Appropriate Technology for the World Federation of Engi-
neering Organizations. (Agitation of Low-Viscosity Particle Suspensions)

PHASE CONTACTING AND LIQUID-SOLID PROCESSING:
AGITATION OF LOW-VISCOSITY

PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS
Fluid Mixing Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Introductory Fluid Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6

Scale-up/Scale-down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
Mixing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8

Small Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Close-Clearance Impellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Axial-Flow Impellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Radial-Flow Impellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Close-Clearance Stirrers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Unbaffled Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Baffled Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10

Fluid Behavior in Mixing Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
Impeller Reynolds Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
Relationship between Fluid Motion and Process Performance . . . . . 18-11
Turbulent Flow in Stirred Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
Fluid Velocities in Mixing Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
Impeller Discharge Rate and Fluid Head for Turbulent Flow . . . . . 18-11
Laminar Fluid Motion in Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Vortex Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Power Consumption of Impellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12

Design of Agitation Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12
Selection of Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12

Blending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13
High-Viscosity Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-14
Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Solid-Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Solid Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16
Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16

Gas-Liquid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16
Gas-Liquid Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16
Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17
Liquid-Gas-Solid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Loop Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18

Liquid-Liquid Contacting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18

Stagewise Equipment: Mixer-Settlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
Mixer-Settler Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
Flow or Line Mixers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19
Mixing in Agitated Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-21
Liquid-Liquid Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-22

Liquid-Liquid-Solid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-22

Fluid Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-22
Pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-22
Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-23

Jackets and Coils of Agitated Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-23
Liquid-Liquid-Gas-Solid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .