Linux Bible 8th Edition
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Linux Bible 8th Edition


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Linux® 
Bible 
8th Edition
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Linux®
BIBLE 
8th Edition
Christopher Negus
with contributions by 
Christine Bresnahan
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Linux® Bible 8th Edition
Published by
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
10475 Crosspoint Boulevard
Indianapolis, IN 46256
www.wiley.com
Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN: 978-1-118-21854-9
ISBN: 978-1-118-28690-6 (ebk)
ISBN: 978-1-118-28287-8 (ebk)
ISBN: 978-1-118-28397-4 (ebk)
Manufactured in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any 
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As always, I dedicate this book to my wife, Sheree. 
\u2014 Chris Negus
I would like to dedicate this book to my family and the Lord God Almighty. 
\u201cBut as for you, be strong and do not give up, for your work will be 
rewarded.\u201d 2 Chronicles 15:7 
\u2014 Christine Bresnahan
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About the Authors
Chris Negus has spent the past three years as an instructor for Red Hat, Inc., teaching 
IT professionals to become Red Hat Certifi ed Engineers (RHCE). Chris\u2019s certifi cations 
include RHCE, Red Hat Certifi ed Instructor (RHCI), and Red Hat Certifi ed Examiner 
(RHCX). He also has certifi cations in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHCVA) and Red 
Hat Enterprise Deployment and Systems Management.
Before joining Red Hat, Chris wrote or co-wrote dozens of books on Linux and 
UNIX, including Red Hat Linux Bible (all editions), CentOS Bible, Fedora Bible, Linux 
Troubleshooting Bible, Linux Toys, and Linux Toys II. Recently, Chris co-authored several 
books for the Linux Toolbox series for power users: Fedora Linux Toolbox, SUSE Linux 
Toolbox, Ubuntu Linux Toolbox, Mac OS X Toolbox, and BSD UNIX Toolbox. 
For eight years Chris worked with the organization at AT&T that developed UNIX before 
moving to Utah to contribute to Novell\u2019s UnixWare project in the early 1990s. When not 
writing about Linux, Chris enjoys playing soccer and just hanging out with his family.
Christine Bresnahan started working with computers over 25 years ago in the IT indus-
try as a system administrator. Christine is currently an adjunct professor at Ivy Tech 
Community College in Indianapolis, Indiana, teaching Linux system administration, 
Linux security, and Windows security classes.
About the Technical Editor
Richard Blum has worked in the IT industry for more than 20 years as both a systems 
and network administrator, and has published numerous Linux and open source books. 
He has administered UNIX, Linux, Novell, and Microsoft servers, as well as helped 
design and maintain a 3,500-user network utilizing Cisco switches and routers. He has 
used Linux servers and shell scripts to perform automated network and system moni-
toring, and has written shell scripts in most of the common Linux shell environments. 
Rich is also an online instructor for several Linux and web programming courses that 
are used by colleges and universities around the world. When he\u2019s not being a computer 
nerd, Rich plays electric bass in a couple of different church worship bands, and enjoys 
spending time with his wife, Barbara, and three daughters, Katie, Jane, and Jessica.
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Credits
Acquisitions Editor
Mary James
Project Editor
Linda Harrison
Technical Editor
Richard Blum
Production Editor
Daniel Scribner
Copy Editor
Nancy Rapoport
Editorial Manager
Mary Beth Wakefield 
Freelancer Editorial Manager
Rosemarie Graham
Associate Director of Marketing
David Mayhew
Marketing Manager
Ashley Zurcher
Business Manager
Amy Knies
Production Manager
Tim Tate
Vice President and Executive Group 
Publisher
Richard Swadley
Vice President and Executive Publisher
Neil Edde
Associate Publisher
Jim Minatel
Project Coordinator, Cover
Katie Crocker
Proofreaders
Josh Chase, Word One