Russo - Básico, Intermediário e Avançado
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Russo - Básico, Intermediário e Avançado


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a \u201cDê-me pão\u201d ou \u201cDê-me o pão\u201d). 
 
 Um pequeno número de substantivos possui uma terminação especial \u443/\u44e quando usado 
no partitivo. Você pode vir a ouvir a pergunta: 
 
\u412\u44b \u445\u43e\u442\u438\u442\u435 \u447\u430\u44e? Você gostaria de um pouco de chá? 
 
 \u427\u430\u44e, com a terminação especial \u44e no genitivo (uma alternativa ao \u44f) é o genitivo 
partitivo de \u447\u430\u439 \u201cchá\u201d. Outros substantivos que podem ter esta terminação \u443 são \u441\u430\u445\u430\u440 \u201caçúcar\u201d, 
\u43c\u451\u434 \u201cmel\u201d, \u441\u44b\u440 \u201cqueijo\u201d: 
 
\u43b\u43e\u436\u43a\u430 \u441\u430\u445\u430\u440\u443 (ou \u441\u430\u445\u430\u440\u430) uma colher (colherada) de açúcar 
 
 
10.9 Adjetivos no Caso Genitivo 
 
 As terminações no genitivo singular para todos os adjetivos usados com substantivos 
masculinos ou neutros são \u43e\u433\u43e ou \u435\u433\u43e. O \u433 é pronunciado como [v]. Esta é a mesma terminação 
de adjetivos que você viu com substantivos masculinos animados no caso acusativo (7.2). Com 
substantivos femininos a terminação do adjetivo é \u43e\u439 ou \u435\u439, as mesmas terminações vistas no 
caso preposicional (7.11). Aqui estão os quatro tipos de adjetivos que vimos na Lição 07: 
 
 
16 Palavra que denota parte de um todo, por exemplo: \u201calgum\u201d, \u201cum pouco\u201d, \u201cmetade\u201d, etc. 
Curso de Russo: Do Básico ao Avançado 
Lição 10 
Página: 131 
 
 
 
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\u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u439 \u201cnovo\u201d (todos os adjetivos terminados em \u44b\u439 ou \u43e\u439): 
\u43f\u438\u441\u44c\u43c\u43e \u43e\u442 \u43d\u43e\u432\u43e\u433\u43e [nó-va-va] \u434\u440\u443\u433\u430 uma carta de um amigo novo 
\u438\u43c\u44f \u43d\u43e\u432\u43e\u439 \u43f\u43e\u434\u440\u443\u433\u438 o nome de uma amiga nova 
 
\u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u439 \u201crusso\u201d (todos os adjetivos terminados em \u433\u438\u439, \u43a\u438\u439 ou \u445\u438\u439): 
\u43a\u43d\u438\u433\u438 \u438\u437 \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u43e\u433\u43e \u43c\u430\u433\u430\u437\u438\u43d\u430 livros de uma loja russa 
\u43f\u438\u441\u44c\u43c\u43e \u43e\u442 \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u43e\u439 \u43f\u43e\u434\u440\u443\u433\u438 uma carta de uma amiga russa 
 
\u445\u43e\u440\u43e\u448\u438\u439 \u201cbom\u201d (\u435 no lugar de \u43e depois das letras \u436, \u447, \u448, \u449, \u446 que fazem parte das Regras 
Gramaticais \u2013 8.3, 8.10): 
\u41d\u435\u442 \u445\u43e\u440\u43e\u448\u435\u433\u43e \u432\u438\u43d\u430 Não há bom vinho 
\u43e\u442 \u445\u43e\u440\u43e\u448\u435\u439 \u43f\u43e\u434\u440\u443\u433\u438 de uma boa amiga 
 
\u43f\u43e\u441\u43b\u435\u434\u43d\u438\u439 \u201cúltimo\u201d (adjetivo suave \u2013 no nominativo todos eles terminam em \u43d\u438\u439): 
\u443\u442\u440\u43e \u43f\u43e\u441\u43b\u435\u434\u43d\u435\u433\u43e \u434\u43d\u44f a manhã do último dia 
\u434\u43e \u43f\u43e\u441\u43b\u435\u434\u43d\u435\u439 \u43c\u438\u43d\u443\u442\u44b até o último minuto 
 
Lembre-se do \u44c extra no adjetivo \u442\u440\u435\u442\u438\u439 \u201cterceiro\u201d (7.6): 
\u443\u442\u440\u43e \u442\u440\u435\u442\u44c\u435\u433\u43e \u434\u43d\u44f a manhã do terceiro dia 
\u438\u437 \u442\u440\u435\u442\u44c\u435\u439 \u43a\u432\u430\u440\u442\u438\u440\u44b do terceiro apartamento (apartamento três) 
 
 
EXERCÍCIO 10/2 
 
Coloque as terminações necessárias nas palavras entre parênteses e traduza: 
 
1 \u41c\u44d\u440\u438 \u43f\u43e\u43b\u443\u447\u430\u435\u442 \u43f\u438\u441\u44c\u43c\u430 \u43e\u442 (\u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u439 \u434\u440\u443\u433). 
2 \u41e\u43a\u43e\u43b\u43e (\u411\u43e\u43b\u44c\u448\u43e\u439 \u442\u435\u430\u442\u440) \u435\u441\u442\u44c \u441\u442\u430\u43d\u446\u438\u44f \u43c\u435\u442\u440\u43e. 3 (\u412\u43e\u43b\u43e\u434\u44f) \u43d\u435\u442 \u434\u43e\u43c\u430. 
4 \u414\u43b\u44f (\u434\u440\u443\u437\u44c\u44f) \u43c\u44b \u43f\u43e\u43a\u443\u43f\u430\u435\u43c \u431\u443\u442\u44b\u43b\u43a\u443 (\u445\u43e\u440\u43e\u448\u435\u435 \u432\u438\u43d\u43e). 
5 \u421\u435\u433\u43e\u434\u43d\u44f \u43f\u43e\u441\u43b\u435 (\u440\u430\u431\u43e\u442\u430) \u432\u441\u435, \u43a\u440\u43e\u43c\u435 (\u421\u430\u448\u430), \u438\u434\u443\u442 \u432 \u442\u435\u430\u442\u440. 
6 \u41f\u43e\u436\u430\u43b\u443\u439\u441\u442\u430, \u434\u430\u439\u442\u435 \u434\u432\u430 (\u43a\u438\u43b\u43e\u433\u440\u430\u43c\u43c) (\u441\u432\u435\u436\u430\u44f \u43a\u43e\u43b\u431\u430\u441\u430). 
 
 
 
Curso de Russo: Do Básico ao Avançado 
Lição 10 
Página: 132 
 
 
 
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10.10 Adjetivos no Genitivo Plural 
 
 Diferente dos substantivos, as terminações dos adjetivos no genitivo plural são simples, 
regulares e se mantém as mesmas em todos os gêneros: \u44b\u445 para adjetivos do tipo 
\u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u439/\u434\u440\u443\u433\u43e\u439 e \u438\u445 para todos os outros: 
 
\u423 \u43d\u430\u441 \u43d\u435\u442 \u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u445 \u43a\u43d\u438\u433 Nós não temos livros novos 
\u43e\u442 \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u445 \u434\u440\u443\u437\u435\u439 de amigos russos 
\u446\u435\u43d\u430 \u445\u43e\u440\u43e\u448\u438\u445 \u44f\u431\u43b\u43e\u43a o preço de boas maçãs 
\u43c\u438\u43c\u43e \u43f\u43e\u441\u43b\u435\u434\u43d\u438\u445 \u434\u43e\u43c\u43e\u432 passando as últimas casas 
\u421\u432\u43e\u431\u43e\u434\u43d\u44b\u445 \u43c\u435\u441\u442 \u43d\u435\u442 Não há assentos (= não há lugares sobrando) 
 
 
10.11 Genitivo dos Pronomes Possessivos e Demonstrativos 
 
 Adjetivos usados com os pronomes \u43c\u43e\u439/\u442\u432\u43e\u439/\u43d\u430\u448/\u432\u430\u448 possuem as mesmas 
terminações de adjetivos do tipo \u445\u43e\u440\u43e\u448\u438\u439: \u435\u433\u43e/\u435\u439 no singular e \u438\u445 no plural. 
 
\u423 \u43c\u43e\u435\u433\u43e \u431\u440\u430\u442\u430 \u43d\u435\u442 \u434\u435\u43d\u435\u433 Meu irmão não tem dinheiro 
\u431\u435\u437 \u442\u432\u43e\u435\u439 \u436\u435\u43d\u44b sem sua esposa 
\u43a\u432\u430\u440\u442\u438\u440\u430 \u43d\u430\u448\u435\u433\u43e \u434\u440\u443\u433\u430 o apartamento de nossos amigos 
\u43f\u438\u441\u44c\u43c\u43e \u43e\u442 \u43c\u43e\u438\u445 \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u445 \u434\u440\u443\u437\u435\u439 uma carta de meus amigos russos 
\u438\u43c\u435\u43d\u430 \u432\u430\u448\u438\u445 \u434\u435\u442\u435\u439 os nomes de seus filhos 
 
 Adjetivos usados com \u44d\u442\u43e\u442 e \u442\u43e\u442 possuem as mesmas terminações de adjetivos do tipo 
\u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u439 no singular (\u44d\u442\u43e\u433\u43e/\u44d\u442\u43e\u439, \u442\u43e\u433\u43e/\u442\u43e\u439), mas no genitivo plural \u44d\u442\u43e\u442 se torna \u44d\u442\u438\u445 e \u442\u43e\u442 se 
torna \u442\u435\u445, isto é, as mesmas terminações do nominativo plural (8.8) mais o sufixo \u445. 
 
\u43c\u438\u43c\u43e \u44d\u442\u43e\u433\u43e \u43d\u43e\u432\u43e\u433\u43e \u434\u43e\u43c\u430 passando esta casa nova 
\u434\u43e \u442\u43e\u433\u43e \u434\u43d\u44f até aquele dia 
\u43e\u442 \u44d\u442\u43e\u439/\u442\u43e\u439 \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u43a\u438 desta/daquela (de + esta/aquela) garota 
\u446\u435\u43d\u430 \u44d\u442\u438\u445 \u44f\u431\u43b\u43e\u43a o preço dessas maçãs 
\u43e\u442 \u442\u435\u445 \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u435\u43a daquelas (de + aquelas) garotas 
 
Curso de Russo: Do Básico ao Avançado 
Lição 10 
Página: 133 
 
 
 
Curso produzido e oferecido por: 
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EXERCÍCIO 10/3 
 
Traduza: 
 
1 \u423 \u432\u430\u448\u438\u445 \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u445 \u434\u440\u443\u437\u435\u439 \u435\u441\u442\u44c \u434\u435\u442\u438? 2 \u41f\u43e\u447\u435\u43c\u443 \u443 \u432\u430\u441 \u43d\u435\u442 \u441\u432\u435\u436\u438\u445 \u444\u440\u443\u43a\u442\u43e\u432? 
3 \u41e\u43a\u43e\u43b\u43e \u43d\u430\u448\u435\u433\u43e \u434\u43e\u43c\u430 \u435\u441\u442\u44c \u438\u43d\u441\u442\u438\u442\u443\u442 \u438\u43d\u43e\u441\u442\u440\u430\u43d\u43d\u44b\u445 \u44f\u437\u44b\u43a\u43e\u432. 4 \u418\u445 \u43d\u435\u442 \u434\u43e\u43c\u430. 
5 Aqui está uma carta de minha amiga russa. 6 Um quilo destas maçãs grandes, por favor. 
7 Nós temos alguns (um pouco \u2013 9.12) livros para seus amigos. 
8 Duas garrafas de vinho tinto (\u201cvinho vermelho\u201d) e uma garrafa de vodka russa. 
9 Ele tem muitos livros interessantes. 10 Nós não temos dinheiro russo. 
 
 
10.12 O Acusativo Plural de Substantivos Animados = Genitivo Plural 
 
 No exercício 8/2 de nosso curso foi mencionado que todos os substantivos animados 
(pessoas e animais), não importando o gênero, possuem terminações especiais no plural 
acusativo. Estas terminações e as terminações que acompanham os adjetivos, possessivos e 
demonstrativos, são as mesmas terminações do genitivo plural. 
 
\u42f \u43b\u44e\u431\u43b\u44e \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u445 \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u435\u43a. Eu amo garotas russas. 
- \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u445 \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u435\u43a também significa \u201cdas garotas russas\u201d 
\u41c\u44b \u437\u43d\u430\u435\u43c \u44d\u442\u438\u445 \u430\u43c\u435\u440\u438\u43a\u430\u43d\u446\u435\u432. Nós conhecemos esses americanos. 
- \u44d\u442\u438\u445 \u430\u43c\u435\u440\u438\u43a\u430\u43d\u446\u435\u432 também significa \u201cdesses americanos\u201d 
\u415\u432\u430 \u43b\u44e\u431\u438\u442 \u430\u43d\u433\u43b\u438\u439\u441\u43a\u438\u445 \u441\u43e\u431\u430\u43a_. Eva ama cachorros ingleses. 
 
 
10.13 Adjetivos com Numerais 
 
 Não existem surpresas com relação à \u43e\u434\u438\u43d ou numerais que são seguidos pelo genitivo 
plural: 
 
\u42f \u437\u43d\u430\u44e \u448\u435\u441\u442\u44c\u434\u435\u441\u44f\u442 \u43e\u434\u43d\u43e \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u43e\u435 
(nom. sg.) \u441\u43b\u43e\u432\u43e (nom. sg.) 
Eu conheço sessenta e uma palavras russas 
\u43f\u44f\u442\u44c \u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u445 (gen. pl.) \u441\u43b\u43e\u432 (gen. pl.) cinco palavras novas 
Curso de Russo: Do Básico ao Avançado 
Lição 10 
Página: 134 
 
 
 
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 Mas depois de \u434\u432\u430, \u442\u440\u438 e \u447\u435\u442\u44b\u440\u435, os substantivos devem estar no genitivo singular (9.5) 
e os adjetivos devem estar no genitivo plural (se vierem acompanhados de substantivos 
masculinos ou neutros) ou no nominativo plural (se vieram acompanhados de substantivos 
femininos): 
 
\u434\u432\u430 \u438\u43d\u43e\u441\u442\u440\u430\u43d\u43d\u44b\u445 (gen. pl.) \u44f\u437\u44b\u43a\u430 (gen. sg.) duas línguas estrangeiras 
\u442\u440\u438 \u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u445 (gen. pl.) \u441\u43b\u43e\u432\u430 (gen. sg.) três palavras novas 
\u434\u432\u435 \u43a\u440\u430\u441\u438\u432\u44b\u435 (nom. pl.) \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u43a\u438 (gen. sg.) duas garotas bonitas 
\u447\u435\u442\u44b\u440\u435 \u43d\u43e\u432\u44b\u435 (nom. pl.) \u43a\u43d\u438\u433\u438 (gen. sg.) quatro livros novos 
 
A gramática dos numerais russos tem outras complicações intrigantes. Mais detalhes serão 
abordados na Lição 22. 
 
 
EXERCÍCIO 10/4 
 
Coloque as terminações necessárias nas palavras entre parênteses: 
 
1 \u41e\u43d\u430 \u437\u43d\u430\u435\u442 (\u43c\u43e\u438 \u430\u43c\u435\u440\u438\u43a\u430\u43d\u441\u43a\u438\u435 \u434\u440\u443\u437\u44c\u44f). 2 \u422\u440\u438\u434\u446\u430\u442\u44c \u43f\u44f\u442\u44c (\u430\u43c\u435\u440\u438\u43a\u430\u43d\u441\u43a\u438\u439 \u434\u43e\u43b\u43b\u430\u440). 
3 \u41e\u43d\u430 \u43f\u43e\u43a\u443\u43f\u430\u435\u442 \u43f\u44f\u442\u44c (\u431\u43e\u43b\u44c\u448\u430\u44f \u431\u443\u442\u44b\u43b\u43a\u430) \u441\u43e\u43a\u430 \u438 (\u43e\u434\u43d\u430 \u43c\u430\u43b\u435\u43d\u44c\u43a\u430\u44f \u431\u443\u442\u44b\u43b\u43a\u430) \u432\u438\u43d\u430. 
4 \u41c\u44d\u440\u438 \u437\u43d\u430\u435\u442 \u442\u440\u438 (\u438\u43d\u43e\u441\u442\u440\u430\u43d\u43d\u44b\u439 \u44f\u437\u44b\u43a). 
 
 
10.14 EXTRA: 2, 3, 4 com Adjetivos Femininos 
 
 É admissível o uso do genitivo plural com substantivos femininos também, o que torna as 
coisas um pouco mais simples: \u434\u432\u435 \u43c\u43e\u43b\u43e\u434\u44b\u445 \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u43a\u438. Entretanto, os russos preferem usar o 
nominativo plural dos adjetivos com substantivos femininos cujo genitivo singular é idêntico ao 
nominativo plural \u2013 \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u43a\u438 (gen. sg. \u201cde uma garota\u201d) = \u434\u435\u432\u443\u448\u43a\u438 (nom. pl. \u201cgarotas\u201d). Estes 
substantivos femininos que têm entonação diferente no genitivo singular e no nominativo plural 
(ex.: \u440\u435\u43a\u438 \u201cde um rio\u201d \u2013 \u440\u435\u43a\u438 \u201crios\u201d) são mais prováveis de terem adjetivos no caso genitivo: 
\u434\u432\u435 \u440\u443\u441\u441\u43a\u438\u445 (gen. pl.) \u440\u435\u43a\u438 (gen. sg.) \u201cdois rios russos\u201d.