endocrino_tireoide
33 pág.

endocrino_tireoide


DisciplinaFisiologia II708 materiais16.978 seguidores
Pré-visualização2 páginas
energética.
- Geralmente causa perda de peso.
- Causa perda de cálcio ósseo.
- Causa fraqueza muscular esquelética.
\uf0d8 Deficiência de Hormônios 
Tireoideanos:
- Afeta o desenvolvimento do SNC 
(cretinismo).
- Retarda o crescimento da criança.
- Retarda o fechamento das epífises ósseas.
- Lentifica a função mental (retardo mental).
- Lentifica a mobilização energética.
- Pode levar ao coma e morte.
Sobre os hormônios tireoideanos
Congenital Hypothyroid:
Congenital hypothyroidism is a relatively common disorder which is screened
for at birth. Thyroid hormone is necessary for brain development in the first
two years of life. If it is not present in adequate amounts during this period of
time, permanent brain damage will occur. As thyroid hormone is necessary
for linear growth, severe growth retardation occurs if it is absent during
childhood. If treatment is started while the epiphyses are open and
undamaged, growth will resume. In addition to the above problems, these
patients may have all the other signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism.
Congenital Hypothyroid: Typical History
A 44 yr. old man who has always been cared for by his mother is
presented. He is severely retarded and cannot communicate. He is only
40\u201d tall, his epiphyses are still open, although severely damaged. He has
very thick, dry skin. His tongue is thick, and he has a saddle nose. He still
has his primary teeth; the secondary teeth have not erupted.
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
Cretinismo
Veja mais em: http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/thyroid/thyroid_preg.html
Myxedematous endemic cretinism in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Four inhabitants aged 15-20 years : a
normal male and three females with severe longstanding hypothyroidism with dwarfism, retarded sexual development,
puffy features, dry skin and hair and severe mental retardation. mixedema: edema com acúmulo de
mucopolissarídeos/glicosaminoglicanas pois a tiroxina diminui a síntese dos ácidos hialurônico e condroitino- sulfúrico
extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.thyroidmanager.org/Chapter20/20-frame.htm
http://members.tripod.com/~Histology_2/conj_ic.htm
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
cretinismo
Hypothyroidism during fetal development can lead to
cretinism. This results as thyroid hormones are
responsible for the development of the nervous system.
Sufferers have mental impairment and often suffer from
dwarfism as their linear growth is affected. The patient
in the image below is suffering from cretinism.
http://cal.man.ac.uk/student_projects/2002/MNBY9APB/THETHYrOIDCLINICAL.htm
Male from Ecuador about 40 years old,
deaf/mute, unable to stand or walk. Use of the
hands was strikingly spared, despite proximal
upper-extremity spasticity. From DeLong et al
(107).
http://www.thyroidmanager.org/Chapter20/20-frame.htm
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
Cretinismo
Three women of the Himalayas with stage II goiters. 
extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.thyroidmanager.org/Chapter20/20-frame.htm
Hipotireoidismo secundário:
Deficiência de iodo na dieta (na criança pode provocar o cretinismo)
Hipertrofia da tireóide no bócio endêmico
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
Primary Hypothyroid: Typical History
43 y/o patient with the chief complaint of "decreased energy." She
complains of fatigue, inability to finish tasks, sleeping more, yet
always being tired. She has also noticed a decreased cold
tolerance, constipation, and dryness of the skin. She comments
that she is always cold, even in the summer. She has a positive
family history for thyroid problems, but does not know the details
Primary hypothyroidism occurs when disease of the thyroid gland prevents it from producing
adequate amounts of thyroid hormone. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and from nonspecific
to very specific. In general, all metabolic processes slow down. Patients are often fatigued, and may
also have depression, decreased intellectual function, and, rarely, overt psychosis (...).
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/thyroid.htm
Hipotireoidismo no adulto
(exemplo de mixedema)
Grave's Disease: Typical History
23 y/o woman presents with the chief complaint of
nervousness. She has a one month history of increased
nervousness associated with a short temper, crying easily, and
tremor. In addition she states she has lost 25 pounds without
dieting, and is always hot. Her eyes protrude and feel dry.
Grave's Disease:
Grave\u2019s disease is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system produces antibodies
which stimulate the TSH receptors of the thyroid gland. The result is the non-suppressible
overproduction of thyroid hormone, resulting in the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism.
Grave\u2019s disease is frequently associatied with exophthalmus and swelling of the periorbital
tissues. This infiltrative ophthalmopathy involves an increase in the mass of both retrobulbar
connective tissue and extraocular muscles, the latter producing ophthalmoplegias. Patients
often complain about dry burning eyes. Rarely there may be skin thickening on the legs referred
to as pretibial myxedema. There is often a family history of both Grave\u2019s disease and
autoimmune thyroiditis.
extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.hsc.missouri.edu/~daveg/thyroid/thy_dis.html#Hyperthyroidism
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
hipertireoidismo
Hyperthyroidism:
Hyperthyroidism is due to an excess amount of free thyroid hormone.
There is a generalized increase in metabolic rate, with an increase in
oxygen use. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism include heat intolerance,
nervousness, increased irritability, palpitations, weight loss with the same
or increased food intake, and increased frequency of defecation. Women
may have a decreased frequency of menses. Physical findings may
include hyperkinesis, warm moist skin, a prominent stare and lid lag. The
neurological exam may show a fine tremor and a fast return phase for the
deep tendon reflexes(...).
Alguns exemplos de distúrbios da secreção tireoideana
Hyperthyroidism: Typical History
32 year old man presents with heat
intolerance and weight loss. His symptoms
started about three months ago and have
been getting worse. He has lost ten pounds
in the last six weeks but says his appetite
is very good. He says he is always hot,
even in air-conditioned rooms. After
questioning, he also admits to having
increased nervousness, trouble concentrating, and palpitations.
He is having trouble doing fine motor tasks because of a tremor.
Physical exam reveals a patient with warm, smooth, moist skin and a
diffuse goiter with a palpable thrill and bruit. Neurological exam
showed a fine tremor and fast return phase for deep tendon reflexes.
http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/thyroid.htm
Doença de Graves (hipertireoidismo). 
Jovem mulher com exoftalmia e bócio 
(Porth, 2004)