Haykin livro azul
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Haykin livro azul


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Introduction to Analog 
and Digital Communications
This page intentionally left blank 
Introduction to Analog 
and Digital Communications
Second Edition
Simon Haykin 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Michael Moher 
Space-Time DSP, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Dan Sayre
SENIOR ACQUISITIONS EDITOR AND PROJECT MANAGER Catherine Shultz
PROJECT EDITOR Gladys Soto
MARKETING MANAGER Phyllis Diaz Cerys
EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Dana Kellog
SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR Lisa Wojcik
MEDIA EDITOR Stefanie Liebman
DESIGNER Hope Miller
SENIOR ILLUSTRATION EDITOR Sigmund Malinowski
COVER IMAGE © Photodisc/Getty Images
This book was set in Quark by Prepare Inc. and printed and bound by Hamilton Printing. The cover was printed
by Phoenix Color Corp.
This book is printed on acid free paper. 
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copy-
right Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the
appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
(978)750-8400, fax (978)646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for per-
mission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hobo-
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To order books or for customer service please, call 1-800-CALL WILEY (225-5945).
ISBN-13 978-0-471-43222-7
ISBN-10 0-471-43222-9
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
\ufffd
To the 20th Century pioneers in communications who, 
through their mathematical theories and ingenious devices, 
have changed our planet into a global village
This page intentionally left blank 
PREFACE
An introductory course on analog and digital communications is fundamental to the under-
graduate program in electrical engineering. This course is usually offered at the junior level.
Typically, it is assumed that the student has a background in calculus, electronics, signals
and systems, and possibly probability theory.
Bearing in mind the introductory nature of this course, a textbook recommended for
the course must be easy to read, accurate, and contain an abundance of insightful exam-
ples, problems, and computer experiments. These objectives of the book are needed to
expedite learning the fundamentals of communication systems at an introductory level and
in an effective manner. This book has been written with all of these objectives in mind.
Given the mathematical nature of communication theory, it is rather easy for the
reader to lose sight of the practical side of communication systems. Throughout the book,
we have made a special effort not to fall into this trap. We have done this by moving
through the treatment of the subject in an orderly manner, always trying to keep the math-
ematical treatment at an easy-to-grasp level and also pointing out practical relevance of the
theory wherever it is appropriate to do so.
Structural Philosophy of the Book
To facilitate and reinforce learning, the layout and format of the book have been
structured to do the following:
\u2022 Provide motivation to read the book and learn from it.
\u2022 Emphasize basic concepts from a \u201csystems\u201d perspective and do so in an orderly manner.
\u2022 Wherever appropriate, include examples and computer experiments in each chapter to illus-
trate application of the pertinent theory.
\u2022 Provide drill problems following the discussion of fundamental concepts to help the user
of the book verify and master the concepts under discussion.
\u2022 Provide additional end-of-chapter problems, some of an advanced nature, to extend the
theory covered in the text.
Organization of the book
1. Motivation Before getting deeply involved in the study of analog and digital communi-
cations, it is imperative that the user of the book be motivated to use the book and learn
from it. To this end, Chapter 1 begins with a historical background of communication sys-
tems and important applications of the subject.
2. Modulation Theory Digital communication has overtaken analog communications as the
dominant form of communications. Although, indeed, these two forms of communications
work in different ways, modulation theory is basic to them both. Moreover, it is easiest to
understand this important subject by first covering its fundamental concepts applied to ana-
log communications and then moving on to digital communications. Moreover, amplitude
modulation is simpler than angle modulation to present. One other highly relevant point is
the fact that to understand modulation theory, it is important that Fourier theory