Fundamentals of Space Systems-Oxford
DisciplinaAerodinâmica de Veículos Aeroespaciais36 materiais • 93 seguidores
Fundamentals of Space Systems Second Edition Edited by Vincent L. Pisacane 0moRD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2005 OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University\u2019s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Anckland Cape Town Dares Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright @ 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may he reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fundamentak of space systems /edited by Vincent L. Pisacane.-2nd ed. Includes bibliographicdl references and index. ISBN 978-0-19.516205-9 I. Pisacane. Vincent L. 11. Seriea. p. cm.-(The John Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory series in science and engineering) 1. AStrondutical instruments. 2. Astronautics-Systems engineering. TL 1082 F86 2004 629.47-dc22 2003024375 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper Preface This second edition of Fundamentals of Space Systems has undertaken to enhance the content of the first edition in two significant ways. First, the material has been updated to reflect changes in the technology and science of spacecraft systems engineering that have occurred since the publication of the first edition. Second, an attempt has been made to make the material more suitable for a space systems course as a prerequisite to a senior class project to design and perhaps build and launch a spacecraft or spacecraft instrument. To this end, the content has been revised on the basis of review and evaluation by the authors\u2019 students and their colleagues. In addition, more problems are provided (with the potential of a solutions manual) and a chapter pulling together the design concepts for a simplified spacecraft has been added. Since most of the authors also teach the material, this provides a text that is especially unique. As an academic offering, the material covered is suitable for a senior level or beginning level graduate course in any of the engineering disciplines. The theme of the book is to expose the reader to the fundamentals of each of the subsystems in a spacecraft to a depth that should permit the reader to carry out a con- ceptual design. It should be noted that the authors of every chapter have had extensive experience and responsibility to develop actual spacecraft subsystems or systems as well as the responsibility to teach, in an academic program, how this is done. As a result, they are able to ignore material that may be of esoteric academic interest but not applicable to the development of actual space systems. The book should help scientists and systems or subsystem engineers working in the field to relate to the myriad of issues and compromises that are necessary to develop a system or subsystem to a set of requirements. With the maturing of the space industry, it is critical that practitioners have vi PREFACE Space Systems Engineering Space Environment Astrodynamics Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Attitude Determination and Control Space Power Systems Thermal Control Configuration and Structures Communications Command and Telemetry Spacecraft Computer Systems and Software Reliability, Quality Assurance, Radiation Spacecraft Integration Spacecraft Operations Examinations Total Two Semesters (hours) 3 6 9 6 6 6 6 6 4.5 3 4.5 6 3 3 12 84 One Semester (hours) 2 2 6 3 4 4 3 4 4 1 1 2 1 1 4 42 a broader understanding of the issues and disciplines in order to enhance performance and reduce cost, schedule, and risk. The material is based on lectures in courses presented in the Applied Physics Program of the Johns Hopkins University School of Engineering and in the Aerospace Engineering Department of the United States Naval Academy. A recommendation for an offering as either a two-semester or one-semester course is illustrated above, assuming a total of 42 contact hours per semester including a three-hour final examination. To obtain a depth sufficient to carry out a conceptual design, it is recommended that the offering be a two-semester course. However, it can be offered as an introductory course over one semester by eliminating some material and restricting the remaining material to specific design concepts. For example, in astrodynamics, interplanetary trajectories may be ignored, in power systems nuclear power may be ignored, and in propulsion systems only spacecraft-based liquid or gaseous orbital propulsion systems may be addressed. To enhance the offering, it is recommended that the class be partitioned into a limited number of teams and provided with a set of mission requirements to which each team is required to design different or similar subsystems. The book is edited solely by Dr. Pisacane, as Mr. Moore was unable to devote the time to the editing process because of commitments to ongoing space projects. The editor wishes to recognize his wife, Lois E. Wehren, M.D., for her inspiration, encouragement, and forbearance so that he was able to complete the task. Finally, all of the authors wish to offer each reader, whether experienced practitioner, teacher, or student, a pleasant and profitable journey through the book. Con tents Contributors, ix 1. Systems Engineering and Management, 3 Vincent L. Pisacane 2. The Space Environment, 49 Brian J. Anderson and Donald G. Mitchell 3. Astrodynamics, 102 Vincent L. Pisacane 4. Spacecraft Propulsion, Launch Systems, and Launch Mechanics, 171 Vincent L. Pisacane 5. Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control, 236 Malcolm D. Shuster and Wayne E Dellinger 6. Space Power Systems, 326 7. Spacecraft Thermal Control, 423 George Dakermanji and Ralph Sullivan Douglas Mehoke 8. Spacecraft Configuration and Structural Design, 465 M? E. Skullney viii CONTENTS 9. Space Communications, 565 Eric J. Hofman 10. Spacecraft Command and Telemetry, 600 Robert C. Moore 11. Spacecraft Computer Systems, 627 Robert C. Moore 12. Embedded Software Systems, 654 Harry K. Utterback 1 3. Spacecraft Reliability, Quality Assurance, and Radiation Effects, 670 R. H. Muurer 14. Spacecraft Integration and Test, 725 Max R. Peterson and Elliot H. Rodberg 15. Space Mission Operations, 754 Murk E. Holdridge 16. Nanosatellite Conceptual Design, 772 Vincent L. Pisucane Appendix: Units, Conversion Factors, and Constants, 797 Index, 805 1 Systems Engineering and Management VINCENT L. PISACANE It must be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, more dangerous to manage, than the creation of a new system. For the ini- tiator has the enmity of all who would profit by the preservation ofthe old institutions and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain by the new ones. - Niccolo Machiavelli When you come to a fork in the road, take it. You've got to be very careful if you don't know where you are going because you might not get there.