Fundamentals of Space Systems-Oxford
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Fundamentals of Space Systems-Oxford


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Fundamentals of Space Systems 
Second Edition 
Edited by 
Vincent L. Pisacane 
0moRD 
UNIVERSITY PRESS 
2005 
OXFORD 
UNIVERSITY PRESS 
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Copyright @ 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. 
Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 
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Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press 
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may he reproduced, 
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without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
Fundamentak of space systems /edited by Vincent L. Pisacane.-2nd ed. 
Includes bibliographicdl references and index. 
ISBN 978-0-19.516205-9 
I. Pisacane. Vincent L. 11. Seriea. 
p. cm.-(The John Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory series in science and engineering) 
1. AStrondutical instruments. 2. Astronautics-Systems engineering. 
TL 1082 F86 2004 
629.47-dc22 2003024375 
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 
Printed in the United States of America 
on acid-free paper 
Preface 
This second edition of Fundamentals of Space Systems has undertaken to enhance the 
content of the first edition in two significant ways. First, the material has been updated 
to reflect changes in the technology and science of spacecraft systems engineering that 
have occurred since the publication of the first edition. Second, an attempt has been 
made to make the material more suitable for a space systems course as a prerequisite to 
a senior class project to design and perhaps build and launch a spacecraft or spacecraft 
instrument. To this end, the content has been revised on the basis of review and evaluation 
by the authors\u2019 students and their colleagues. In addition, more problems are provided 
(with the potential of a solutions manual) and a chapter pulling together the design 
concepts for a simplified spacecraft has been added. Since most of the authors also teach 
the material, this provides a text that is especially unique. As an academic offering, the 
material covered is suitable for a senior level or beginning level graduate course in any 
of the engineering disciplines. 
The theme of the book is to expose the reader to the fundamentals of each of the 
subsystems in a spacecraft to a depth that should permit the reader to carry out a con- 
ceptual design. It should be noted that the authors of every chapter have had extensive 
experience and responsibility to develop actual spacecraft subsystems or systems as 
well as the responsibility to teach, in an academic program, how this is done. As a 
result, they are able to ignore material that may be of esoteric academic interest but not 
applicable to the development of actual space systems. The book should help scientists 
and systems or subsystem engineers working in the field to relate to the myriad of 
issues and compromises that are necessary to develop a system or subsystem to a set of 
requirements. With the maturing of the space industry, it is critical that practitioners have 
vi PREFACE 
Space Systems Engineering 
Space Environment 
Astrodynamics 
Propulsion and Flight Mechanics 
Attitude Determination and Control 
Space Power Systems 
Thermal Control 
Configuration and Structures 
Communications 
Command and Telemetry 
Spacecraft Computer Systems and Software 
Reliability, Quality Assurance, Radiation 
Spacecraft Integration 
Spacecraft Operations 
Examinations 
Total 
Two Semesters 
(hours) 
3 
6 
9 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
4.5 
3 
4.5 
6 
3 
3 
12 
84 
One Semester 
(hours) 
2 
2 
6 
3 
4 
4 
3 
4 
4 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
4 
42 
a broader understanding of the issues and disciplines in order to enhance performance 
and reduce cost, schedule, and risk. 
The material is based on lectures in courses presented in the Applied Physics Program 
of the Johns Hopkins University School of Engineering and in the Aerospace Engineering 
Department of the United States Naval Academy. A recommendation for an offering as 
either a two-semester or one-semester course is illustrated above, assuming a total of 42 
contact hours per semester including a three-hour final examination. 
To obtain a depth sufficient to carry out a conceptual design, it is recommended that the 
offering be a two-semester course. However, it can be offered as an introductory course 
over one semester by eliminating some material and restricting the remaining material to 
specific design concepts. For example, in astrodynamics, interplanetary trajectories may 
be ignored, in power systems nuclear power may be ignored, and in propulsion systems 
only spacecraft-based liquid or gaseous orbital propulsion systems may be addressed. 
To enhance the offering, it is recommended that the class be partitioned into a limited 
number of teams and provided with a set of mission requirements to which each team 
is required to design different or similar subsystems. 
The book is edited solely by Dr. Pisacane, as Mr. Moore was unable to devote the time 
to the editing process because of commitments to ongoing space projects. The editor 
wishes to recognize his wife, Lois E. Wehren, M.D., for her inspiration, encouragement, 
and forbearance so that he was able to complete the task. 
Finally, all of the authors wish to offer each reader, whether experienced practitioner, 
teacher, or student, a pleasant and profitable journey through the book. 
Con tents 
Contributors, ix 
1. Systems Engineering and Management, 3 
Vincent L. Pisacane 
2. The Space Environment, 49 
Brian J. Anderson and Donald G. Mitchell 
3. Astrodynamics, 102 
Vincent L. Pisacane 
4. Spacecraft Propulsion, Launch Systems, and Launch Mechanics, 171 
Vincent L. Pisacane 
5. Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control, 236 
Malcolm D. Shuster and Wayne E Dellinger 
6. Space Power Systems, 326 
7. Spacecraft Thermal Control, 423 
George Dakermanji and Ralph Sullivan 
Douglas Mehoke 
8. Spacecraft Configuration and Structural Design, 465 
M? E. Skullney 
viii CONTENTS 
9. Space Communications, 565 
Eric J. Hofman 
10. Spacecraft Command and Telemetry, 600 
Robert C. Moore 
11. Spacecraft Computer Systems, 627 
Robert C. Moore 
12. Embedded Software Systems, 654 
Harry K. Utterback 
1 3. Spacecraft Reliability, Quality Assurance, and Radiation Effects, 670 
R. H. Muurer 
14. Spacecraft Integration and Test, 725 
Max R. Peterson and Elliot H. Rodberg 
15. Space Mission Operations, 754 
Murk E. Holdridge 
16. Nanosatellite Conceptual Design, 772 
Vincent L. Pisucane 
Appendix: Units, Conversion Factors, and Constants, 797 
Index, 805 
1 
Systems Engineering 
and Management 
VINCENT L. PISACANE 
It must be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of 
success, more dangerous to manage, than the creation of a new system. For the ini- 
tiator has the enmity of all who would profit by the preservation ofthe old institutions 
and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain by the new ones. 
- Niccolo Machiavelli 
When you come to a fork in the road, take it. 
You've got to be very careful if you don't know where you are going because you 
might not get there.