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and Technology
S E V E N T H 
E D I T I O N 
Serope Kalpakjian
Illinois Institute of Technology
Steven R. Schmid
The University of Notre Dame 
SI E d ition C ontribu tions by
K. S. Vijay Sekar
SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, India
Singapore London New York Toronto Sydney Tokyo Madrid 
Mexico City Munich Paris Cape Town Hong Kong Montreal
Published by
Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 
23/25 First Lok Yang Road, Jurong 
Singapore 629733
Publishing Director: Mark Cohen 
Acquisitions Editor: Arunabha Deb 
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Pearson Education offices in Asia: Bangkok, Beijing, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, 
Seoul, Singapore, Taipei, Tokyo
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition, 
ISBN: 9780133128741 by KALPAKJIAN, SEROPE; SCHMID, STEVEN, published by Pearson Education, Inc, Copyright 
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or 
mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system, without permission from 
Pearson Education, Inc.
LTD., Copyright ©2014.
Printed in Singapore
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ISBN 978-981-06-9406-7
Copyright © 2014 by Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright 
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To the memory of 
Margaret Jean Kalpakjian
“And ever has it been known that love knows not its own depth 
until the hour o f separation.”
Khalil Gibran
Preface xxiii 
About the Authors xxvii 
General Introduction 1
I.1 What is Manufacturing? 1
I.2 Product Design and Concurrent Engineering 6
I.3 Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service 10
I.4 Green Design and Manufacturing 11
I.5 Selection of Materials 13
I.6 Selection of Manufacturing Processes 16
I.7 Computer-integrated Manufacturing 25
I.8 Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management 28
I.9 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing 30
I.10 Manufacturing Costs and Global Competition 31
I.11 Trends in Manufacturing 32
Part I: Fundamentals o f Materials: Behavior 
and Manufacturing Properties 35
1 The Structure of Metals 38
1 .1 Introduction 38
1.2 Types of Atomic Bonds 39
1.3 The Crystal Structure of Metals 40
1.4 Deformation and Strength of Single Crystals 42
1.5 Grains and Grain Boundaries 45
1.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals 48
1.7 Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth 49
1.8 Cold, Warm, and H ot Working 50 
Summary 51 Key Terms 51 Bibliography 52 
Review Questions 52 Qualitative Problems 52 
Quantitative Problems 53 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 54
2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing 
Properties of Materials 55
2.1 Introduction 55
2.2 Tension 56
2.3 Compression 65
2.4 Torsion 66
2.5 Bending (Flexure) 67
2.6 Hardness 67
2.7 Fatigue 73
2.8 Creep 74
2.9 Impact 74
2.10 Failure and Fracture of Materials 75
2.11 Residual Stresses 80
2.12 Work, Heat, and Temperature 81
Summary 82 Key Terms 83 Bibliography 83
Review Questions 84 Qualitative Problems 84 
Quantitative Problems 85 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 86
3 Physical Properties of Materials 88
3.1 Introduction 88
3.2 Density 89
3.3 Melting Point 92
3.4 Specific Heat 92
3.5 Thermal Conductivity 93
3.6 Thermal Expansion 93
3.7 Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties 94
3.8 Corrosion Resistance 95
Summary 97 Key Terms 98 Bibliography 98
Review Questions 98 Qualitative Problems 98 
Quantitative Problems 99 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 99
4 Metal Alloys: Their Structure and Strengthening
by Heat Treatment 101
4.1 Introduction 101
4.2 Structure of Alloys 102
4.3 Phase Diagrams 104
4.4 The Iron–carbon System 107
4.5 The Iron–iron-carbide Phase Diagram and the Development 
of Microstructures in Steels 108
4.6 Cast Irons 109
4.7 Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys 111
4.8 Hardenability of Ferrous Alloys 113
4.9 Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Alloys 
and Stainless Steels 117
4.10 Case Hardening 119
4.11 Annealing 121
4.12 Heat-treating Furnaces and Equipment 123
4.13 Design Considerations for Heat Treating 124
Summary 125 Key Terms 126 Bibliography 126
Review Questions 126 Qualitative Problems 127
Quantitative Problems 127 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 127
5 Ferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General 
Properties, and Applications 128
5.1 Introduction 128
5.2 Production of Iron and Steel 129
5.3 Casting of Ingots 132
5.4 Continuous Casting 133
5.5 Carbon and Alloy Steels 135
5.6 Stainless Steels 142
5.7 Tool and Die Steels 144
Summary 145 Key Terms 146 Bibliography 147
Review Questions 147 Qualitative Problems 147
Quantitative Problems 148 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 148
6 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, 
General Properties, and Applications 150
6.1 Introduction 150
6.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 151
6.3 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 155
6.4 Copper and Copper Alloys 156