The Complete Musician_ An Integrated Approach to Tonal Theory, Analysis, and Listening ( PDFDrive.com )
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The Complete Musician_ An Integrated Approach to Tonal Theory, Analysis, and Listening ( PDFDrive.com )


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THE COMPLETE MUSICIAN 
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO TONAL 
THEORY, ANALYSIS, AND LISTENING 
Third Edition 
Steven G. Laitz 
Eastman School of Music 
New York Oxford 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
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without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
Laitz, Steven G. (Steven Geoffrey) 
The complete musician: an integrated approach to tonal theory, 
analysis, and listening/Steven G. Laitz.-3rd ed. 
p.cm. 
ISBN 978-0-19-974278-3 (hardcover) 
1. Music theory-Textbooks. 2. Tonality. 3. Musical analysis. I. Title. 
MT6.L136C66 2012 
781.2-dc22 
Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
Printed in the United States of America 
on acid-free paper 
2011005659 
To my family: 
Anne-Marie, Madeleine, and, of course, Willow and Winn-Dixie 
iv 
BRIEF CONTENTS 
Preface xii 
PART 1 THE FOUNDATION OF TONAL MUSIC 1 
1 Musical Space and Time 2 
2 Harnessing Space and Time: Introduction to Melody 
and Two-Voice Counterpoint 41 
3 Musical Density: Triads, Seventh Chords, and Texture 64 
PART 2 MERGING MELODY AND HARMONY 83 
4 When Harmony, Melody, and Rhythm Converge 84 
5 Tonic and Dominant as Tonal Pillars and Introduction 
to Voice Leading 103 
6 The Impact of Melody, Rhythm, and Meter on Harmony; 
Introduction to V7; and Harmonizing Florid Melodies 120 
7 Contrapuntal Expansions of Tonic and Dominant: Six-Three Chords 142 
8 More Contrapuntal Expansions: Inversions of V7, Introduction 
to Leading-Tone Seventh Chords, and Reduction and Elaboration 160 
PART 3 A NEW HARMONIC FUNCTION, 
THE PHRASE MODEL, AND ADDITIONAL MELODIC 
AND HARMONIC EMBELLISHMENTS 189 
9 The Pre-Dominant Function and the Phrase Model 190 
10 Accented and Chromatic Embellishing Tones 206 
11 Six-Four Chords, Revisiting the Subdominant, and Summary 
of Contrapuntal Expansions 227 
12 The Pre-Dominant Refines the Phrase Model 246 
PART 4 NEW CHORDS AND NEW FORMS 267 
13 The Submediant: A New Diatonic Harmony, 
and Further Extensions of the Phrase Model 268 
14 The Mediant, the Back-Relating Dominant, and a Synthesis 
of Diatonic Harmonic Relationships 286 
15 The Period 297 
16 Other Small Musical Structures: Sentences, Double Periods, 
and Modified Periods 310 
17 Harmonic Sequences 325 
BRIEF CONTENTS 
PART 5 FUNCTIONAL CHROMATICISM 347 
18 Applied Chords 348 
19 Tonicization and Modulation 371 
20 Binary Form and Variations 389 
PART 6 EXPRESSIVE CHROMATICISM 417 
21 Modal Mixture 418 
22 Expansion of Modal Mixture Harmonies: Chromatic Modulation 
and the German Lied 437 
23 The Neapolitan Chord (~II) 460 
24 The Augmented Sixth Chord 472 
PART 7 LARGE FORMS: TERNARY, RONDO, SONATA 493 
25 Ternary Form 494 
26 Rondo 521 
27 Sonata Form 537 
PART 8 INTRODUCTION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY 
HARMONY: THE SHIFT FROM ASYMMETRY TO SYMMETRY 585 
28 New Harmonic Tendencies 586 
29 The Rise of Symmetrical Harmony in Tonal Music 606 
30 Melodic and Harmonic Symmetry Combine: Chromatic Sequences 624 
31 At Tonality's Edge 648 
APPENDICES 
Appendix 1 Fundamentals 
A. The Pitch Realm 681 
B. Pulse, Rhythm, and Meter 699 
C. Intervals 713 
D. Triads, Inversions, Figured Bass, and Harmonic Analysis 726 
E. Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis 744 
Appendix 2 Invertible Counterpoint, Compound Melody, 
and Implied Harmonies 754 
Appendix 3 The Motive 768 
Appendix 4 Additional Harmonic-Sequence Topics 804 
Appendix 5 Abbreviations and Acronyms 811 
Appendix 6 Selected Answers to Textbook Exercises 815 
Index of Terms and Concepts 866 
Index of Musical Examples and Exercises 872 
v 
xii 
PREFACE 
M usic students often suffer through their theory and aural skills courses, 
viewing them as not particularly relevant-perhaps even painful-side-
lines of their musical studies. This is a shame, since an unsatisfying experience 
early on frequently has a negative effect on students' attitudes in subsequent 
academic courses. Some students express the concern that much of the theory 
and aural skills curriculum has little bearing on their music making. Students 
often view part writing and figured bass as arcane and antiquated activities, 
and ear training and dictation-activities that should be intimately linked to 
music making-as scarcely more meaningful. Intervals out of context and 
chords strung together in disembodied harmonic progressions strip music of 
its very life. Analysis-arguably the most important component of any music 
theory curriculum-is sometimes reduced to nothing more than roman nu-
merals and form labeling. 
There's little question that reading and comprehending theory texts can be 
especially daunting, given their encyclopedic nature and the number of de-
tails that represent exceptions rather than the norms of tonal music. This third 
edition of The Complete Musician is specifically designed to quell students' 
fears by making the material more accessible and more immediate to their ex-
perience as musicians, resulting in a most engaging, musical, and integrated 
tonal-theory text for music majors. 
Underlying Approach 
The Complete Musician is founded on three simple premises. First, I believe stu-
dents can learn to hear, comprehend, and model the structure and syntax of 
the music they love. Second, I hold the opinion that the same simple processes 
underlie all tonal music and that they are fleshed out in wondrously diverse 
ways. Third, I believe that students will rise to the challenge when all of their 
senses are stimulated and they are immersed in instrumental and vocal music 
from the tonal repertoire. 
A hierarchical approach that illuminates how the harmony of a given pas-
sage emerges from the combination of melodic lines is central to The Complete 
Musician. The book's premise of tonal music as a fusion of melody, counter-
PREFACE Xlll 
point, and harmony will appeal to single-line players and singers as well as 
keyboard players. The text presents a multistage writing and aural process 
through which students consider a passage's outer-voice counterpoint and 
metrical setting in order to discern its harmonic flow. With a foundation of the 
tonal norms, students should be able to connect their basic musical instincts 
with what they hear and see. For example, students will learn to notate the 
missing cello line of a string quartet when the given score contains only the 
upper instruments, but the recorded performance includes all four instru-
ments. By integrating an understanding of tonal procedures, analytical strate-
gies, and the ability to read music with singing, playing, and listening, stu-
dents should emerge from the course as independent and well-rounded 
musicians. 
The book's user-friendly and multitiered analytical approach stresses the 
distinction between description (i.e., labeling a given sonority according to its 
scale degree relation to the tonic using roman numerals and figured