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1.1. Apostila da UC 07 - Técnicas de Produção Vegetal

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Formação Técnica
Técnicas de Produção Vegetal
Curso Técnico em Agronegócio
SENAR - Brasília, 2015
Formação Técnica
Técnicas de 
Produção Vegetal
S474c
 SENAR – Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Rural. 
 Curso técnico em agronegócio: técnicas de produção vegetal / Serviço 
Nacional de Aprendizagem Rural ; Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino 
Técnico e Emprego, Rede e-Tec Brasil, SENAR (Organizadores). – Brasília : 
SENAR, 2015.
 150 p. : il. (SENAR Formação Técnica) 
 
 ISBN: 978-85-7664-083-7 
 
 Inclui bibliografia.
1. Produtividade agrícola. 2. Agroindústria - ensino. I. Programa Nacional 
de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego. II. Rede e-Tec Brasil. III. Título. IV. 
Série. 
 
CDU: 633
Sumário
Introdução à Unidade Curricular –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 9
Tema 1: Contexto da Agricultura em Sistemas de Produção Sustentável ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1 2
Tópico 1: Aspectos Econômicos ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1 2
Tópico 2: Produção Vegetal –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1 4
Tópico 3: Produção Vegetal Sustentável ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1 4
Tópico 4: Sistemas de Produção Sustentável ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1 7
1. Agricultura Orgânica ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––1 7
2. Produção Integrada Agropecuária –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 0
3. Integração Lavoura-Pecuária-Floresta – iLPF ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 1
Encerramento do tema ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 2
Atividade de aprendizagem ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 2
Tema 2: Sistema Solo-Planta-Atmosfera ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 4
Tópico 1: Solo, Planta e Atmosfera –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 4
1. Água ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 6
2. Solo –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––2 9
3. Planta –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––3 2
4. Atmosfera –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––3 6
Tópico 2: Sistemas de Manejo do Solo ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––3 7
Encerramento do tema ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––3 9
Atividade de aprendizagem ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––3 9
Tema 3: Nutrição Mineral de Plantas e Fertilidade do Solo ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––4 1
Tópico 1: Nutrição Mineral de Plantas –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––4 2
1. Deslocamento dos nutrientes na planta ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––4 4
2. Absorções radicular e foliar dos nutrientes ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––4 6
Tópico 2: Fertilidade do Solo –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––4 8
1. Calagem ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––5 0
2. Gessagem –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––5 3
3. Adubação –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––5 4
Encerramento do tema –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––5 7
Atividade de aprendizagem ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––5 8
Tema 4: Cultura do Café ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 6 0
Tópico 1: História e Características Gerais do Café –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 6 0
1. Classificação e características –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 2
Tópico 2: Morfologia –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 3
1. Ramos ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 4
2. Folhas –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 5
3. Flor e floração –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 6
4. Fruto e frutificação –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 7
Tópico 3: Implantação da Lavoura –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––6 9
1. Conservação do solo –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––7 1
2. Plantio ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––7 1
Tópico 4: Clima e Solo ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 7 2
1. A geada e a cafeicultura ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 7 2
Tópico 5: Nutrição do Cafeeiro ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––7 3
1. Aspectos práticos da nutrição –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––74
Tópico 6: Manejo de Plantas Daninhas –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––7 7
1. Modos e épocas de controle –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––7 8
2. Herbicidas e doses ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––7