Food Analysis
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Food Analysis

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Food Science Text Series 
S. Suzanne Nielsen
Fifth Edition
Food Analysis
Food Science 
Text Series 
Fifth Edition
For other titles published in this series, go to
Series editor:
Dennis  R. Heldman
Heldman Associates
Mason, Ohio, USA
The Food Science Text Series provides faculty with the leading teaching tools. The Editorial Board has 
outlined the most appropriate and complete content for each food science course in a typical food science 
program and has identified textbooks of the highest quality, written by the leading food science educators. 
Series Editor Dennis R. Heldman, Professor, Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, 
The Ohio State University, Editorial Board: John Coupland, Professor of Food Science, Department of Food 
Science, Penn State University, David A.  Golden, Professor of Food Microbiology, Department of Food 
Science and Technology, University of Tennessee. Mario Ferruzzi, Professor, Food Bioprocessing and 
Nutritional Sciences, North Carolina State University. Richard W.  Hartel, Professor of Food Engineering, 
Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin. Joseph H. Hotchkiss, Professor and Director of the 
School of Packaging and Center for Packaging Innovation and Sustainability, Michigan State University, 
S.  Suzanne Nielsen, Professor, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, Juan L.  Silva, Professor, 
Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University, Martin 
Wiedmann, Professor, Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Kit Keith L. Yam, Professor of Food 
Science, Department of Food Science, Rutgers University.
Food Analysis
Fifth Edition
Edited by
S. Suzanne Nielsen
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN, USA
S. Suzanne Nielsen
Department of Food Science
Purdue University
West Lafayette
ISSN 1572-0330 ISSN 2214-7799 (electronic)
Food Science Text Series
ISBN 978-3-319-45774-1 ISBN 978-3-319-45776-5 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-45776-5
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017942967
© Springer International Publishing 2017, corrected publication 2019
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, 
specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other 
physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar 
methodology now known or hereafter developed.
The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the 
absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for 
general use.
The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and 
accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect 
to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to 
jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 
Printed on acid-free paper
This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature
The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG
The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland
The intent of this fifth edition book is the same as 
that described in the Preface to the first four edi-
tions \u2013 a text primarily for undergraduate students 
majoring in food science, currently studying the 
analysis of foods. However, comments from users 
of the first four editions have convinced me that the 
book is also a valuable text for persons in the food 
industry who either do food analysis or interact 
with analysts.
The big focus of this edition was to do a gen-
eral update on methods and to make the content 
easier for readers to compare and contrast methods 
covered. The following summarize changes from 
the fourth edition: (1) general updates, including 
addition and deletion of methods, (2) three new 
chapters (\u201cDetermination of Total Phenolics and 
Antioxidants Capacity in Food and Ingredients,\u201d 
\u201cFood Microstructure Techniques,\u201d \u201cFood Forensic 
Investigation\u201d), (3) rewrote and/or reorganized 
some chapters, (4) added tables to some chapters to 
summarize and compare methods, and (5) added 
some colored figures.
As stated for the first four editions, the chap-
ters in this textbook are not intended as detailed 
references, but as general introductions to the 
topics and the techniques. Course instructors 
may wish to provide more details on a particular 
topic to students. Chapters focus on principles 
and applications of techniques. Procedures given 
are meant to help explain the principles and give 
some examples, but are not meant to be presented 
in the detail adequate to actually conduct a specific 
analysis. As in the first four editions, all chapters 
have summaries and study questions, and key-
words or phrases are in bold type, to help students 
focus their studies. The grouping of chapters by 
category is similar to the fourth edition. However, 
due to the increased use of spectroscopy and 
chromatography for many basic analyses, chap-
ters on these topics are covered early in the book. 
Instructors are encouraged to cover the topics from 
this text in whatever order is most suitable for their 
course. Also, instructors are invited to contact me 
for access to a website I maintain with additional 
teaching materials related to this textbook and the 
accompanying laboratory manual.
Starting with the third edition, the competency 
requirements established by the Institute of Food 
Technologists were considered. Those requirements 
relevant to food analysis are as follows: (1) under-
standing the principles behind analytical techniques 
associated with food, (2) being able to select the 
appropriate analytical technique when presented 
with a practical problem, and (3) demonstrating 
practical proficiency in food analysis laboratory. This 
textbook should enable instructors to meet the 
requirements and develop learning objectives rele-
vant to the first two of these requirements. The labo-
ratory manual, now in its third edition, should be a 
useful resource to help students meet the third 
I am grateful to all chapter authors for agree-
ing to be a part of this project. Authors have 
drawn on their experience of teaching students 
and/or experience with these analyses to give 
chapters the appropriate content, relevance, and 
ease of use. I wish to thank the authors of articles 
and books, as well as the publishers and indus-
trial companies, for their permission to reproduce 
materials used here. Special thanks is extended to 
the following persons: Baraem (Pam) Ismail for 
valuable discussions about the content of the 
book and reviewing several book chapters, Ben 
Paxson for drawing/redrawing figures, and 
Telaina Minnicus and Mikaela Allan for word 
processing assistance. I am also very grateful to 
Bill Aimutis, Angela Cardinali, Wayne Ellefson, 
Chris Fosse, and David Plank who were valuable 
for discussions and arranged for me to visit with 
numerous scientists in the analytical laboratories 
at the following companies/institute: Cargill, 
ConAgra Foods, Covance, and General Mills in 
the USA, and Bonassisa Lab and the Institute of 
Science of Food Production in Italy.
West Lafayette, IN, USA S. Suzanne Nielsen 
Preface and Acknowledgments
The original version of this book was revised.
The correction to this book can be found at DOI
Preface and Acknowledgments
2-D Two-dimensional