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lunch at home, we would eat (eat) greener.
c) Industries would pollute (pollute) less if environmental laws were (be) tougher.
d) The weather wouldn’t be (not be) so unstable if we didn’t pollute (not pollute) 
the environment so much.
e) If people weren’t (not be) interested in the future, they wouldn’t make (not 
make) so many predictions about it.
 3. In pairs, go to the supplementary material to play a game about hypothetical situations. 
Encaminhamento metodológico.7
Caso seja interessante, é possível, neste momento, realizar as atividades 2 e 3 da seção Challenge yourself, ao final deste capítulo.
9o. ano – Volume 324
Adverbs of certainty
 1. Check out the following sentences from the Reading time section and identify the words that indicate 
how probable each fact is.
Check it out Encaminhamento metodológico.8
 2. Based on these examples, choose the best option to complete the rules about using adverbs of certainty.
a) If there are two verbs, the adverb is usually placed after / between the auxiliary verb and the main 
verb in affirmative sentences.
b) The adverb comes before / between most verbs, except be.
Rewrite the following sentences adding an adverb of certainty that matches the level of probability 
indicated in parentheses. Answers may vary. Suggested answers:
a) Winters will be hotter due to global warming. (very likely)
Winters will definitely be hotter due to global warming. 
b) It’ll stop snowing during our roadtrip. (less likely)
Maybe it’ll stop snowing during our roadtrip.
c) Weather forecasts won’t be accurate. (somewhat likely)
Weather forecasts probably won’t be accurate.
d) Countries would reduce their emissions if they started profiting with it. (very likely)
Countries would surely reduce their emissions if they started profiting with it.
probably, likely
surely, certainly, definitelyperhaps, maybe
less certain more certain
Your turn
Adverbs of certainty are used to indicate how certain the speaker is of something. As you’ve noticed, we place adverbs after 
the auxiliary verb in affirmative sentences. However, we place them before the auxiliary verb in negative sentences: 
It will probably rain tomorrow, but the temperature definitely won’t drop.
The adverbs maybe and perhaps are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence.
Maybe clean energy will become more accessible in the near future.
Caso seja interessante, é possível, neste momento, realizar as atividades de 4 a 6 da seção Challenge yourself, ao final deste 
• If the sun were to start putting out more radiation, for instance, that would definitely warm the 
• But if that rate continued, it would probably be manageable, experts say.
• The transition to cleaner energy certainly produces losers, like coal companies, but it also creates 
 Língua Inglesa 25
How green are you?
Enjoy! Encaminhamento metodológico.9
It’s time to get up.
 1. I have...
a) a long shower.
b) a long bath.
c) a quick wash.
d) a quick bath.
 2. I use...
a) regular soap. 
b) soap that is not tested on animals.
c) bath salts or bubbles.
... and we’re back home.
 7. In my free time, I often
a) text my friends while watching TV.
b) play sports or go to the park.
c) play computer games or surf the net. 
d) read books and hang out with friends.
 8. When I’m relaxing, I usually have ___ electrical 
appliances on (lights, cell phone, computer/tablet, 
air conditioning, TV, radio/speakers, etc.).
a) 1 or 2 b) 3 or 4 c) 5 or more
©Shutterstock/Little Noom
V, radio/speakers, etc.).
) 3 or 4 c) 5 or more
©Shutterstock/Naruedom Yaempongsa
10. I brush my teeth
a) almost every night.
b) every night, and I let the tap running.
c) every night, and I turn the tap off.
Time for a break.
 5. I usually eat...
a) chocolate or chips.
b) pre-packaged biscuits or sandwiches. 
c) fresh fruit or homemade snacks. 
 6. After I eat, I throw my garbage...
a) on the floor. 
b) in the nearest trash can.
c) in the correct recycling bin.
School time!
 3. I usually...
a) go by car.
b) ride my bike.
c) walk.
d) take public 
 4. When I take notes on a piece of 
paper, I...
a) write on both sides. 
b) finish it off making a paper 
c) write on one side of the paper, 
then ask for more.
Time to sleep! 
9. Before going to bed, I
a) turn off the computer.
b) leave the computer on standby mode.
c) pause my game and leave the computer on.
Check the answer key in the supplementary material!
9o. ano – Volume 326
 3. Discuss with a partner:
a) In your opinion, how does climate change impact people’s daily lives? 
b) What health problems can be related to environmental changes? What parts of the body do they 
affect? Think of examples for:
• extreme heat • floods • droughts 
 1. How many body parts do you know in English? Try to list as many as possible in 1 minute!
Answers will vary.
 2. Now, label the following body parts using words from the box.
Listen up
Encaminhamento metodológico e script de áudio.10
neck (throat)
 neck (throat) 
 heart liver 
 kidney stomach 
 Língua Inglesa 27
 4. Listen to some information by the World Health Organization about how climate change will impact 
health and choose the correct option to complete the following sentences.
a) From 2030 to 2050, _______ additional deaths related to climate change are expected.
( X ) 250 000 ( ) 2 500
b) _______ diseases are related to extremely high temperatures.
( X ) Cardiovascular and respiratory ( ) Diarrhoea and cardiovascular
c) A lack of fresh water can increase the risk of _______.
( ) floods and water-borne diseases ( X ) diarrhoea, drought and famine
d) _______ will be most vulnerable to health risks related to climate change.
( X ) Children in poor countries ( ) All populations
Caso seja interessante, é possível, neste momento, realizar as atividades 7 e 8 da seção Challenge yourself, ao final deste capítulo.
Track 11
Organize your ideas 
Take a look at the following text and think of how social and economic development are connected to the 
environment. Organize the ideas into the diagram below.
Encaminhamento metodológico.11
Impacts related to climate change are evident across regions and in many sectors important to society—such as human 
health, agriculture and food security, water supply, transportation, energy, ecosystems, and others—and are expected 
to become increasingly disruptive throughout this century and beyond. [...] 
In some regions, prolonged periods of high temperatures associated with droughts contribute to conditions that lead 
to larger wildfires and longer fire seasons. For coastal communities, sea level rise, combined with coastal storms, has 
increased the risk of erosion, storm surge damage, and flooding. Extreme heat, sea level rise, and heavy downpours 
are affecting infrastructure like roads, rail lines, airports, port facilities, energy infrastructure, and military bases. [...] The 
rising temperature and changing chemistry of ocean water is combining with other stresses, such as overfishing and 
pollution, to alter marine-based food production and harm fishing communities. 
File Edit History Tools Help 
Go Linkshttps://www.globalchange.gov/climate-change/impacts-society

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