Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo
26 pág.

Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo


DisciplinaPsicologia Social7.191 materiais211.285 seguidores
Pré-visualização10 páginas
Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011
nar,\u2009de\u2009maneira\u2009muito\u2009mais\u2009construtivista,\u2009o\u2009que,\u2009ativamente,\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009provoca.\u2009
O\u2009segredo\u2009provoca\u2009o\u2009segredo.\u2009Nós\u2009reencontramos\u2009a\u2009proposição\u2009de\u2009Ellenberger,\u2009
apenas\u2009modificada:\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009fabrica\u2009o\u2009segredo.
E\u2009é\u2009na\u2009análise\u2009daquilo\u2009que\u2009é\u2009fabricado\u2009que\u2009as\u2009coisas\u2009se\u2009tornam\u2009interessan-
tes,\u2009pois\u2009ela\u2009nos\u2009traz\u2009de\u2009volta\u2009às\u2009características\u2009particulares\u2009da\u2009metamorfose\u2009que\u2009
Janet\u2009propôs\u2009a\u2009Achille.\u2009Lembremos,\u2009com\u2009efeito,\u2009que\u2009o\u2009primeiro\u2009trabalho\u2009de\u2009Janet\u2009
consistiu\u2009 de\u2009 qualquer\u2009modo\u2009 em\u2009 provocar\u2009 um\u2009 curto-\u2009 circuito\u2009 no\u2009 recurso\u2009 a\u2009 ou-
tras\u2009intencionalidades,\u2009os\u2009invisíveis\u2009que\u2009tratavam\u2009Achille\u2009do\u2009exterior\u2009tornaram-se\u2009
aquilo\u2009que\u2009fará\u2009Achille\u2009agir\u2009do\u2009interior.\u2009Em\u2009outros\u2009termos,\u2009o\u2009trabalho\u2009consistiu\u2009em\u2009
construir\u2009a\u2009interioridade.\u2009O\u2009segredo\u2009não\u2009faz\u2009outra\u2009coisa:\u2009ele\u2009fabrica\u2009seres\u2009interio-
res.\u2009O\u2009segredo,\u2009como\u2009dispositivo\u2009teórico\u2009e\u2009técnico,\u2009constrói\u2009uma\u2009forma\u2009particular\u2009
de\u2009experiência\u2009de\u2009desordem.\u2009Ele\u2009engaja\u2009o\u2009paciente\u2009em\u2009viver\u2009e\u2009em\u2009traduzir\u2009sua\u2009
perturbação\u2009enraizando-a\u2009no\u2009mais\u2009profundo\u2009de\u2009sua\u2009intimidade.\u2009
Essa\u2009tendência\u2009será\u2009ainda\u2009mais\u2009forte\u2009quando\u2009uma\u2009boa\u2009parte\u2009de\u2009nossos\u2009mo-
delos\u2009 de\u2009 doença\u2009mental\u2009 articulam,\u2009 de\u2009maneira\u2009 cerrada,\u2009 teorias\u2009 de\u2009 distúrbios\u2009 e\u2009
teorias\u2009de\u2009emoções.\u2009Com\u2009efeito,\u2009as\u2009concepções\u2009de\u2009emoções\u2009que\u2009são\u2009cultivadas\u2009
em\u2009nossa\u2009tradição\u2009as\u2009designam\u2009não\u2009somente\u2009como\u2009processos\u2009que\u2009contradizem\u2009a\u2009
razão,\u2009ou\u2009que\u2009lhe\u2009escapam\u2009parcialmente,\u2009mas\u2009sobretudo\u2009como\u2009processos\u2009essen-
cialmente\u2009íntimos,\u2009cujo\u2009acesso\u2009privilegiado\u2009se\u2009constitui\u2009na\u2009introspecção\u2009como\u2009via\u2009
real\u2009do\u2009conhecimento\u2009da\u2009mais\u2009pura\u2009verdade\u2009de\u2009si.\u2009Voltaremos\u2009a\u2009isso\u2009durante\u2009a\u2009ter-
ceira\u2009parte,\u2009aquela\u2009sobre\u2009as\u2009emoções,\u2009mas\u2009antecipemos\u2009um\u2009pouco.\u2009A\u2009introspecção\u2009
das\u2009emoções,\u2009escreve\u2009a\u2009etnopsicóloga\u2009Catherine\u2009Lutz\u2009(2004,\u2009p.\u200968),\u2009é\u2009\u201co\u2009método\u2009
por\u2009excelência\u2009para\u2009descobrir\u2009o\u2009\u201c\u2018realmente\u2009real\u2019\u201d.\u2009As\u2009emoções,\u2009em\u2009certos\u2009aspec-
tos,\u2009constituem\u2009ainda\u2009mais\u2009o\u2009verdadeiro\u2009núcleo\u2009da\u2009pessoa\u2009que\u2009nos\u2009pensamos\u2009não\u2009
poder\u2009controlá-las,\u2009que\u2009elas\u2009escapam\u2009à\u2009vontade,\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009parte.\u2009De\u2009outra\u2009parte,\u2009
elas\u2009são\u2009ainda\u2009mais\u2009verdadeiras\u2009e\u2009íntimas\u2009na\u2009medida\u2009em\u2009que\u2009consideramos\u2009que\u2009
o\u2009espaço\u2009privado\u2009(ou\u2009doméstico)\u2009é\u2009seu\u2009lugar\u2009pleno\u2009de\u2009expansão;\u2009é\u2009o\u2009espaço\u2009dos\u2009
verdadeiros\u2009sentimentos,\u2009em\u2009oposição\u2009ao\u2009espaço\u2009público,\u2009historicamente\u2009consti-
tuído\u2009como\u2009o\u2009espaço\u2009desafetado\u2009da\u2009racionalidade.4 Voltaremos a essa teoria das 
emoções\u2009em\u2009nosso\u2009segundo\u2009ou\u2009terceiro\u2009seminário\u2009(em\u2009função\u2009de\u2009as\u2009duas\u2009partes\u2009
do\u2009presente\u2009assunto\u2009vir\u2009a\u2009constituir\u2009um\u2009ou\u2009dois\u2009encontros),\u2009quando\u2009terei\u2009então\u2009a\u2009
ocasião\u2009de\u2009desenvolvê-la.
A\u2009analogia\u2009com\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009dito\u2009patogênico\u2009pode\u2009ser\u2009igualmente\u2009conduzida\u2009
quando\u2009consideramos\u2009a\u2009surpreendente\u2009concepção,\u2009legível\u2009em\u2009muitas\u2009numerosas\u2009
metáforas,\u2009que\u2009nos\u2009dá\u2009simultaneamente\u2009o\u2009que\u2009pode\u2009nos\u2009tornar\u2009doentes\u2009e\u2009o\u2009que\u2009
pode\u2009nos\u2009curar.\u2009Tais\u2009metáforas\u2009podem\u2009,\u2009ademais,\u2009se\u2009traduzir\u2009sob\u2009a\u2009forma\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009
outra\u2009mais\u2009geral:\u2009seríamos\u2009,em\u2009relação\u2009a\u2009nossas\u2009emoções,\u2009como\u2009\u201cpanelas\u2009de\u2009pres-
são\u201d.\u2009Podemos\u2009ferver\u2009de\u2009cólera,\u2009explodir\u2009de\u2009raiva;\u2009não\u2009podemos\u2009nos\u2009conter.\u2009Não\u2009
é\u2009somente\u2009questão\u2009de\u2009transbordamento,\u2009de\u2009válvula\u2009de\u2009escape,\u2009de\u2009liberar\u2009a\u2009pressão\u2009
etc.\u2009As\u2009emoções\u2009são\u2009forças\u2009internas,\u2009que\u2009nos\u2009trabalham\u2009desde\u2009o\u2009interior\u2009e\u2009que\u2009são\u2009
vividas\u2009como\u2009perigosas\u2009em\u2009seu\u2009transbordamento\u2009sempre\u2009possível;\u2009mas\u2009elas\u2009são\u2009
também\u2009potencialmente\u2009perigosas\u2009se\u2009não\u2009tomamos\u2009cuidado\u2009e\u2009as\u2009\u201cdeixamos\u2009sair\u201d,\u2009
as\u2009descarregamos\u2009ou\u2009as\u2009\u201cexprimimos\u201d\u2009no\u2009sentido\u2009etimológico\u2009do\u2009termo.\u2009\u201cVocê\u2009
Leitura\u2009etnopsicológica\u2009do\u2009segredo
Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1,\u2009 p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 11
não\u2009deve\u2009guardar\u2009a\u2009cólera\u201d;\u2009\u201cvocê\u2009deve\u2009aprender\u2009a\u2009exprimir\u2009suas\u2009emoções\u201d.\u2009É\u2009
necessário\u2009desabafar,\u2009cortar\u2009o\u2009mal\u2009pela\u2009raiz,\u2009ou,\u2009quando\u2009a\u2009semântica\u2009médica\u2009se\u2009
interpõe,\u2009restabelecer\u2009as\u2009experiências\u2009de\u2009purga\u2009ou\u2009de\u2009sangramento.
O\u2009modelo\u2009segundo\u2009o\u2009qual\u2009o\u2009acesso\u2009à\u2009vida\u2009íntima\u2009constitui\u2009a\u2009chave\u2009da\u2009cura\u2009
circula\u2009sob\u2009a\u2009garantia\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009evidência\u2009de\u2009tal\u2009ordem\u2009que\u2009quando\u2009os\u2009terapeutas\u2009
se\u2009dirigem\u2009a\u2009pessoas\u2009de\u2009outras\u2009culturas,\u2009e\u2009são\u2009frustrados\u2009em\u2009suas\u2009propostas\u2009de\u2009
cuidado,\u2009eles\u2009se\u2009remetem\u2009geralmente\u2009à\u2009incapacidade\u2009de\u2009seus\u2009doentes,\u2009com\u2009um\u2009
etnocentrismo\u2009que\u2009fascina\u2009as\u2009razões\u2009desse\u2009insucesso.\u2009Assim,\u2009o\u2009psiquiatra\u2009ame-
ricano\u2009Arthur\u2009Kleinman\u2009(1981)\u2009exprime\u2009sua\u2009frustração\u2009diante\u2009do\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009chama\u2009
um\u2009\u201cdiscernimento\u2009 introspectivo\u2009 limitado\u201d\u2009dos\u2009pacientes\u2009chineses\u2009a\u2009quem\u2009ele\u2009
propôs\u2009seus\u2009serviços.
Eu\u2009 ficava,\u2009 escreve\u2009 ele,\u2009 frequentemente\u2009 exasperado\u2009 e\u2009
impotente\u2009 tentando\u2009 ajudar\u2009 os\u2009 pacientes\u2009 chineses\u2009 a\u2009 falar\u2009
de\u2009 suas\u2009 emoções\u2009 disfóricas.\u2009 Os\u2009 pacientes\u2009 que\u2009 me\u2009 diziam\u2009
que\u2009 se\u2009 sentiam\u2009 deprimidos,\u2009 ansiosos\u2009 ou\u2009 angustiados,\u2009 por\u2009
exemplo,\u2009 não\u2009 pareciam\u2009 poder\u2009 ir\u2009 além\u2009 do\u2009 fato\u2009 de\u2009 nomear\u2009
o\u2009 sentimento\u2009 [...]\u2009 Eles\u2009 não\u2009 poderão\u2009 elaborar\u2009 sobre\u2009 as\u2009
características\u2009intrapsíquicas\u2009e\u2009afirmam\u2009que\u2009eles\u2009não\u2009podem\u2009
pensar\u2009 nesses\u2009 termos.\u2009 Parece\u2009 lhes\u2009 faltar\u2009 uma\u2009 terminologia\u2009
fina\u2009para\u2009exprimir\u2009o\u2009que\u2009eles\u2009experimentam\u2009[...]\u2009Um\u2009aspecto\u2009
importante\u2009da\u2009psicoterapia\u2009com\u2009tais\u2009pacientes\u2009é\u2009lhes\u2009ensinar\u2009
uma\u2009 linguagem\u2009 para\u2009 poder\u2009 comunicar\u2009 suas\u2009 experiências\u2009
intrapsíquicas (KLEINMAN,\u20091981,\u2009p.\u200932).
 Ou,\u2009como\u2009sublinha\u2009Catherine\u2009Lutz\u2009(2004,\u2009p.\u200963),\u2009no\u2009modo\u2009de\u2009ver\u2009chinês,\u2009
os\u2009sentimentos\u2009não\u2009são\u2009percebidos\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009origem\u2009possível\u2009do\u2009desassossego,\u2009
e\u2009o\u2009\u201cdiscernimento\u2009introspectivo\u201d\u2009que\u2009valorizamos,\u2009somente\u2009traduz\u2009finalmente,\u2009
segundo\u2009eles,\u2009uma\u2009preocupação\u2009excessiva\u2009consigo\u2009mesmo.
As\u2009críticas\u2009que\u2009podemos\u2009dirigir\u2009à\u2009Kleinman\u2009não\u2009devem\u2009entretanto\u2009se\u2009limi-
tar\u2009às\u2009situações\u2009marcadas\u2009pela\u2009diferença\u2009cultural.\u2009É\u2009a\u2009pertinência\u2009de\u2009nosso\u2009pró-
prios\u2009modelos,\u2009e\u2009sobretudo\u2009a\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009eles\u2009legitimam,\u2009até\u2009prescrevem\u2009certas\u2009
formas\u2009de\u2009hierarquização,\u2009que\u2009fomos\u2009convidados\u2009a\u2009interrogar.\u2009Assim,\u2009à\u2009questão\u2009
que\u2009lhe\u2009coloca\u2009Mikkel\u2009Borch-Jakobsen\u2009(2006a,\u2009p.\u200995)\u2009a\u2009propósito\u2009dos\u2009\u201cefeitos\u2009
de\u2009verdade\u201d\u2009produzidos\u2009pelas\u2009teorias,\u2009o\u2009psiquiatra\u2009Georges\u2009Fischman\u2009responde\u2009
que\u2009\u201ca\u2009relação\u2009complexa\u2009com\u2009a\u2009verdade\u2009não\u2009é\u2009de\u2009igual\u2009profundidade\u2009para\u2009todos\u2009
os\u2009 indivíduos,\u2009 a\u2009 consciência\u2009 dos\u2009meandros\u2009 da\u2009 subjetividade\u2009 apenas\u2009 raramente\u2009
é\u2009acessível\u2009a\u2009 todos\u2009os\u2009espíritos\u201d.\u2009Não\u2009podemos\u2009reencontrar\u2009a\u2009mesma\u2009forma\u2009de\u2009
hierarquização\u2009presente\u2009na\u2009obra\u2009do\u2009psiquiatra\u2009confrontado\u2009com\u2009os\u2009deficientes\u2009de\u2009
simbolização\u2009que\u2009seriam,\u2009se\u2009acreditássemos,\u2009os\u2009chineses?5\u2009E\u2009essa\u2009hierarquização\u2009
não\u2009reenvia,\u2009em\u2009última\u2009instância\u2009às\u2009relações\u2009de\u2009poder\u2009entre\u2009os\u2009interventores\u2009\u2013\u2009que\u2009
se\u2009ocupa\u2009de\u2009quem\u2009e\u2009de\u2009qual\u2009status\u2009corresponde\u2009a\u2009cada\u2009uma\u2009dessas\u2009atribuições?
Vinciane Despret
12\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011
Com\u2009 essa\u2009 crítica,\u2009 é\u2009 a\u2009 uma\u2009 outra\u2009 dimensão\u2009 da\u2009 prática\u2009 que\u2009 somos\u2009 reen-
viados,\u2009dimensão\u2009que\u2009 toca\u2009 tanto\u2009a\u2009questão\u2009do\u2009segredo\u2009quanto\u2009a\u2009das\u2009emoções:\u2009
a\u2009dimensão\u2009política.\u2009Essa\u2009duas\u2009questões,\u2009com\u2009efeito,\u2009são\u2009indissociáveis\u2009às\u2009das\u2009
relações\u2009de\u2009poder.6
A\u2009questão\u2009das\u2009emoções,\u2009mas\u2009isso\u2009seria\u2009o\u2009objeto\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009análise\u2009mais\u2009lon-
ga,\u2009é\u2009uma\u2009questão\u2009que\u2009toca\u2009à\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009se\u2009organizam\u2009as\u2009relações\u2009em\u2009uma\u2009
sociedade.\u2009O\u2009que\u2009me\u2009interessa\u2009aqui\u2009é\u2009que\u2009ela\u2009toca\u2009igualmente\u2009a\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009
se\u2009constroem\u2009as\u2009 relações\u2009entre\u2009cuidadores\u2009e\u2009doentes.\u2009Entretanto,\u2009 considerar\u2009o\u2009
controle\u2009das\u2009emoções\u2009unicamente\u2009no\u2009registro\u2009da\u2009repressão\u2009nos\u2009faria\u2009faltar\u2009um\u2009
aspecto\u2009importante\u2009dessa\u2009relação:\u2009aquela\u2009que\u2009é\u2009necessária\u2009entender\u2009pelo\u2009controle\u2009
designa\u2009tanto,\u2009senão\u2009mais,\u2009o\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009fazer\u2009uma\u2009certa\u2009experiência\u2009das\u2009emoções,\u2009
por\u2009 exemplo\u2009 o\u2009 fato\u2009 de\u2009 poder\u2009 falar\u2009 delas,\u2009 de\u2009 identificá-las,\u2009 de\u2009 dissecá-las,\u2009 de\u2009
interpretá-las\u2009no\u2009registro\u2009simbólico,\u2009e\u2009sobretudo,\u2009sobretudo!\u2009de\u2009traduzi-las\u2009como\u2009
eventos\u2009intrapsíquicos\u2009antes\u2009que\u2009como\u2009reações\u2009a\u2009eventos\u2009exteriores.\u2009É\u2009em\u2009torno\u2009
dessas\u2009competências\u2009que\u2009se\u2009desenham\u2009as\u2009hierarquizações:\u2009 lembremos\u2009dos\u2009pa-
cientes\u2009chineses\u2009ou\u2009ainda\u2009daqueles\u2009que,\u2009entre\u2009nós,\u2009cortam\u2009mais\u2009rente\u2009o\u2009menor\u2009
dos\u2009meandros\u2009da\u2009subjetividade.
A\u2009questão\u2009do\u2009segredo,\u2009por\u2009sua\u2009vez,\u2009não\u2009somente\u2009organiza\u2009as\u2009 relações\u2009
entre\u2009interventores\u2009e\u2009pacientes,\u2009como\u2009também\u2009as\u2009relações\u2009entre\u2009os\u2009cuidadores\u2009
entre\u2009 si.\u2009Voltaremos\u2009a\u2009este\u2009 fato,\u2009mas\u2009agora\u2009o\u2009colocando\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009questão\u2009
política,\u2009 de\u2009 acordo\u2009 com\u2009 a\u2009 proposição\u2009 pragmática\u2009 que\u2009 abriu\u2009minha\u2009 análise: