Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo
10 pág.

Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo


DisciplinaPsicologia Social6.329 materiais202.576 seguidores
Pré-visualização10 páginas
\u2013\u2009ou\u2009melhor,\u2009verifica17\u2009\u2013\u2009 tentando\u2009elucidar\u2009
as\u2009origens\u2009desse\u2009talento\u2009algo\u2009miraculoso,\u2009é\u2009que\u2009as\u2009pessoas\u2009que\u2009interrogavam\u2009o\u2009
cavalo,\u2009emitiam,\u2009sem\u2009se\u2009dar\u2009conta,\u2009sinais\u2009permitindo\u2009a\u2009esse\u2009último\u2009saber\u2009quando\u2009
deveria\u2009parar\u2009de\u2009bater\u2009com\u2009o\u2009casco.\u2009Pfungst\u2009vai\u2009colocar\u2009à\u2009prova\u2009a\u2009hipótese\u2009de\u2009
diferentes\u2009maneiras:\u2009vai\u2009pedir\u2009aos\u2009sujeitos\u2009para\u2009interrogar\u2009o\u2009cavalo,\u2009com\u2009o\u2009intuito\u2009
de\u2009observar\u2009o\u2009fenômeno\u2009da\u2009influência\u2009das\u2009expectativas;\u2009vai\u2009igualmente\u2009desempe-
nhar\u2009ele\u2009mesmo\u2009o\u2009papel\u2009do\u2009cavalo\u2009diante\u2009dos\u2009sujeitos,\u2009e\u2009tentar\u2009adquirir\u2009os\u2009mesmos\u2009
talentos\u2009de\u2009adivinhar,\u2009nos\u2009movimentos\u2009imperceptíveis\u2009daqueles\u2009que,\u2009despercebi-
damente,\u2009os\u2009efetuam\u2009na\u2009quantidade\u2009equivalente\u2009ao\u2009número\u2009que\u2009têm\u2009em\u2009mente.\u2009Ora\u2009
essas\u2009experiências,\u2009que\u2009eu\u2009brevemente\u2009assinalei,\u2009estão\u2009às\u2009vezes\u2009sob\u2009o\u2009regime\u2009da\u2009
ignorância\u2009às\u2009vezes\u2009não:\u2009os\u2009sujeitos,\u2009nesse\u2009caso,\u2009sabem\u2009o\u2009que\u2009é\u2009esperado\u2009do\u2009expe-
rimento;\u2009pede-se\u2009a\u2009eles\u2009serem\u2009vigilantes\u2009quanto\u2009à\u2009influência\u2009de\u2009suas\u2009expectativas

As\u2009razões\u2009desse\u2009contraste\u2009entre\u2009ignorância\u2009e\u2009explicitação\u2009são\u2009visíveis\u2009se\u2009se\u2009
leva\u2009em\u2009conta\u2009a\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009são\u2009organizadas\u2009as\u2009experiências,\u2009tanto\u2009por\u2009Pfungst\u2009
quanto\u2009por\u2009Wundt.

Em\u2009Wundt,\u2009inicialmente,\u2009é\u2009importante\u2009lembrar\u2009o\u2009conteúdo\u2009dos\u2009experimen-
tos,\u2009pois\u2009ele\u2009tem\u2009importância.\u2009Wundt,\u2009ao\u2009fundar\u2009a\u2009psicologia\u2009experimental,\u2009a\u2009quer\u2009
calcada\u2009sobre\u2009a\u2009fisiologia.\u2009Ele\u2009necessita\u2009de\u2009leis,\u2009em\u2009decorrência\u2009da\u2009causalidade\u2009
psíquica,\u2009seu\u2009método\u2009consistirá\u2009de\u2009encontrá-las,\u2009submetendo\u2009à\u2009prova,\u2009como\u2009o\u2009faz\u2009
a\u2009fisiologia\u2009experimental,\u2009os\u2009\u201cefeitos\u201d.\u2009O\u2009objeto\u2009privilegiado\u2009sobre\u2009o\u2009qual\u2009sustenta\u2009
sua\u2009 investigação\u2009de\u2009efeitos\u2009será\u2009herdeiro,\u2009por\u2009sua\u2009vez,\u2009da\u2009 tradição\u2009filosófica:\u2009a\u2009
consciência.\u2009Será\u2009estudado\u2009dessa\u2009forma\u2009o\u2009efeito\u2009de\u2009tal\u2009estimulação\u2009sobre\u2009o\u2009me-
canismo\u2009psíquico,\u2009como\u2009a\u2009percepção\u2009da\u2009diferença\u2009de\u2009luminosidade\u2009ou\u2009de\u2009pesos.\u2009
A\u2009consciência\u2009 se\u2009 exprime\u2009pelos\u2009 tempos\u2009de\u2009 reação,\u2009 as\u2009diferenças\u2009de\u2009percepção\u2009
(por\u2009exemplo\u2009da\u2009luminosidade\u2009em\u2009função\u2009de\u2009sua\u2009superfície),\u2009dão\u2009lugar\u2009a\u2009equa-
ções\u2009traduzindo\u2009por\u2009funções\u2009os\u2009fenômenos\u2009como\u2009a\u2009percepção\u2009de\u2009diferenças\u2009de\u2009
pesos.18\u2009A\u2009introspecção,\u2009todavia,\u2009permanece\u2009a\u2009via\u2009privilegiada\u2009para\u2009explorar\u2009essa\u2009
consciência:\u2009ela\u2009deve\u2009completar\u2009os\u2009dados\u2009assim\u2009obtidos.\u2009A\u2009pessoa\u2009que\u2009efetuou\u2009a\u2009
discriminação,\u2009que\u2009produziu\u2009as\u2009reações\u2009\u2013\u2009em\u2009resumo,\u2009aquela\u2009que\u2009denominamos\u2009
hoje\u2009o\u2009sujeito\u2009\u2013\u2009deve\u2009na\u2009segunda\u2009fase\u2009da\u2009experiência,\u2009relatar\u2009a\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009suas\u2009
sensações,\u2009percepções,\u2009reações\u2009ou\u2009discriminações\u2009foram\u2009produzidas.19

Mas\u2009o\u2009que\u2009aparece\u2009como\u2009muito\u2009mais\u2009exótico\u2009para\u2009nós\u2009atualmente\u2009é\u2009a\u2009ma-
neira\u2009como\u2009as\u2009experiências\u2009se\u2009organizavam.\u2009Não\u2009havia\u2009como\u2009se\u2009falar\u2009propriamen-
te\u2009de\u2009sujeito,\u2009no\u2009sentido\u2009contemporâneo\u2009da\u2009psicologia\u2009\u2013\u2009além\u2009disso,\u2009não\u2009se\u2009falava\u2009
assim.\u2009E\u2009é\u2009aí\u2009que\u2009reside\u2009o\u2009verdadeiro\u2009desafio\u2009simultâneo\u2009às\u2009práticas\u2009da\u2009mentira\u2009e\u2009
às\u2009práticas\u2009que\u2009fazem\u2009do\u2009sujeito\u2009\u201cum\u2009qualquer\u201d:\u2009dos\u2009efeitos\u2009\u201csem\u2009nome\u201d.

No\u2009 laboratório\u2009de\u2009Wundt,\u2009as\u2009posições\u2009de\u2009sujeito\u2009e\u2009experimentador\u2009eram\u2009
totalmente\u2009intercambiáveis.\u2009Porque\u2009a\u2009pesquisa\u2009e\u2009a\u2009educação\u2009estavam\u2009intimamente\u2009
ligadas\u2009nas\u2009universidades\u2009alemãs,\u2009cada\u2009estudante\u2009era\u2009ao\u2009mesmo\u2009tempo\u2009pesquisa-
dor\u2009e\u2009trabalhava\u2009em\u2009colaboração\u2009com\u2009seus\u2009colegas\u2009e\u2009seus\u2009professores.\u2009Cada\u2009um\u2009

Leitura\u2009etnopsicológica\u2009do\u2009segredo

Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1,\u2009 p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 23

conduzia\u2009sua\u2009experiência\u2009e\u2009participava\u2009das\u2009conduzidas\u2009por\u2009outros.\u2009Cada\u2009pesqui-
sador\u2009podia,\u2009portanto,\u2009adotar,\u2009em\u2009uma\u2009experiência\u2009ou\u2009outra,\u2009tanto\u2009a\u2009posição\u2009de\u2009
experimentador\u2009quanto\u2009aquela\u2009que\u2009denominamos\u2009de\u2009\u201csujeito\u201d,\u2009papel\u2009que\u2009recebia\u2009
naquela\u2009 época\u2009 o\u2009 bonito\u2009 nome\u2009 de\u2009 \u201cobservador\u201d.\u2009O\u2009 fato\u2009 que\u2009 não\u2009 se\u2009 designe\u2009 \u201ca\u2009
fonte\u2009 humana\u2009de\u2009dados\u201d\u2009pelo\u2009 nome\u2009de\u2009 \u201csujeito\u201d\u2009não\u2009 é\u2009 insignificante.\u2009Chamar\u2009
de\u2009\u201csujeito\u201d\u2009aquele\u2009que\u2009participa\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009experiência\u2009 implica\u2009muitas\u2009coisas.\u2009O\u2009
termo\u2009traduz\u2009uma\u2009distribuição\u2009muito\u2009singular\u2009e\u2009muito\u2009assimétrica\u2009de\u2009expertise e
de\u2009papéis.\u2009Lembro,\u2009a\u2009título\u2009de\u2009exemplo,\u2009uma\u2009passagem\u2009da\u2009experiência\u2009de\u2009Tamara\u2009
Dembo\u2009(1976)\u2009(a\u2009experiência\u2009que\u2009quer\u2009colocar\u2009os\u2009sujeitos\u2009em\u2009cólera),\u2009essa\u2009res-
posta\u2009muito\u2009significativa\u2009da\u2009experimentadora\u2009para\u2009um\u2009sujeito,\u2009que\u2009considerando\u2009a\u2009
experiência\u2009absurda,\u2009deseja\u2009abandoná-la:\u2009\u201cvocê\u2009é\u2009o\u2009sujeito,\u2009você\u2009deve\u2009continuar\u201d.\u2009
E\u2009essa\u2009resposta\u2009foi\u2009suficiente\u2009para\u2009recolocar\u2009as\u2009coisas\u2009em\u2009seus\u2009lugares.\u2009Mas\u2009raros\u2009
são\u2009justamente\u2009os\u2009sujeitos\u2009que\u2009se\u2009autorizam\u2009a\u2009denunciar\u2009o\u2009absurdo\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009expe-
riência:\u2009o\u2009termo\u2009\u201csujeito\u201d\u2009exerce\u2009uma\u2009indução\u2009desde\u2009o\u2009início.

Retornando\u2009a\u2009Wundt,\u2009vemos,\u2009ainda\u2009mais\u2009surpreendentemente,\u2009que\u2009as\u2009po-
sições\u2009de\u2009sujeito\u2009e\u2009de\u2009experimentador\u2009não\u2009são\u2009sequer\u2009fixadas\u2009em\u2009função\u2009do\u2009res-
ponsável\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009dada\u2009pesquisa,\u2009uma\u2009vez\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009chega\u2009a\u2009assinar\u2009o\u2009sujeito\u2009da\u2009
experiência.\u2009Ele\u2009simplesmente\u2009havia\u2009delegado\u2009a\u2009outros\u2009o\u2009cuidado\u2009de\u2009conduzir\u2009a\u2009
experimentação.\u2009O\u2009próprio\u2009Wundt\u2009escolhia\u2009sempre\u2009para\u2009ele\u2009mesmo\u2009o\u2009papel\u2009de\u2009
sujeito,\u2009mesmo\u2009quando\u2009testava\u2009suas\u2009próprias\u2009teorias.\u2009Por\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009não\u2009assumia\u2009o\u2009
lugar\u2009de\u2009experimentador?\u2009

É\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009daqui\u2009que\u2009podemos\u2009começar\u2009a\u2009compreender\u2009o\u2009verdadeiro\u2009alcan-
ce\u2009do\u2009contraste\u2009que\u2009estou\u2009tentando\u2009construir:\u2009Wundt\u2009assumia\u2009o\u2009papel\u2009de\u2009sujeito\u2009
simplesmente\u2009porque\u2009esse\u2009papel\u2009exigia\u2009muito\u2009mais\u2009de\u2009sofisticação\u2009psicológica,\u2009
de\u2009competência,\u2009de\u2009expertise\u2009que\u2009o\u2009demandado\u2009do\u2009papel\u2009do\u2009experimentador!\u2009A\u2009
expertise,\u2009nesse\u2009tipo\u2009de\u2009dispositivo,\u2009intervém\u2009em\u2009muitos\u2009níveis,\u2009não\u2009somente\u2009na\u2009
capacidade\u2009de\u2009perceber,\u2009de\u2009discriminar,\u2009de\u2009reagir,\u2009mas\u2009intervém\u2009também\u2009em\u2009um\u2009
momento\u2009crucial\u2009da\u2009experiência:\u2009o\u2009da\u2009introspecção,\u2009momento\u2009durante\u2009o\u2009qual\u2009o\u2009
sujeito\u2009relata\u2009metodicamente\u2009todos\u2009os\u2009eventos\u2009de\u2009consciência\u2009que\u2009acompanharam\u2009
a\u2009percepção,\u2009a\u2009discriminação.\u2009O\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009praticar\u2009essas\u2009experiências\u2009com\u2009experts
de\u2009talento\u2009constituía\u2009então\u2009a\u2009garantia\u2009de\u2009que\u2009as\u2009observações\u2009haviam\u2009sido\u2009efetua-
das\u2009com\u2009o\u2009cuidado\u2009requerido,\u2009pelas\u2009pessoas\u2009que\u2009podiam\u2009assegurar\u2009a\u2009credibilidade\u2009
científica.\u2009Esses\u2009experts-colegas\u2009trabalhavam\u2009junto\u2009em\u2009um\u2009regime\u2009totalmente\u2009di-
ferente\u2009daquele\u2009que\u2009nós\u2009conhecemos\u2009\u2013\u2009atualmente\u2009caracterizado\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009radical\u2009
assimetria de expertises \u2013 \u2009:\u2009eles\u2009estavam\u2009em\u2009um\u2009regime\u2009de\u2009confiança,\u2009poderíamos\u2009
dizer.\u2009Mais\u2009interessante\u2009ainda,\u2009o\u2009nome\u2009dos\u2009\u201csujeitos\u201d\u2009figurava\u2009no\u2009conteúdo\u2009dos\u2009
artigos,\u2009porque\u2009justamente\u2009essa\u2009menção\u2009assumia\u2009toda\u2009sua\u2009importância:\u2009um\u2009sujeito\u2009
de\u2009talento\u2009era\u2009uma\u2009garantia\u2009suplementar\u2009de\u2009credibilidade\u2009do\u2009trabalho.

O\u2009contraste\u2009que\u2009 ressaltei\u2009em\u2009Pfungst,\u2009misturando\u2009as\u2009duas\u2009práticas,\u2009pode\u2009
agora\u2009se\u2009explicar.\u2009Quando\u2009se\u2009tem\u2009que\u2009falar\u2009com\u2009\u201cum\u2009qualquer\u201d,\u2009os\u2009objetivos\u2009da\u2009
experiência\u2009são\u2009ocultados;\u2009quando\u2009se\u2009fala\u2009com\u2009sujeitos\u2009de\u2009talento,\u2009seus\u2009estudantes\u2009
de\u2009filosofia,\u2009trabalhando\u2009com\u2009ele,\u2009ele\u2009se\u2009autoriza\u2009a\u2009conduzir\u2009a\u2009pesquisa\u2009sem\u2009o\u2009pacto\u2009
da\u2009ignorância.\u2009E\u2009se\u2009os\u2009primeiros\u2009sujeitos\u2009são\u2009nomeados\u2009apenas\u2009pela\u2009primeira\u2009letra\u2009
de\u2009seu\u2009nome\u2009(Senhorita\u2009S.),\u2009os\u2009segundos,\u2009em\u2009contrapartida,\u2009são\u2009explicitamente\u2009

Vinciane Despret

24\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011

designados:\u2009Chaym,\u2009Von\u2009Manteuffel,\u2009Schumann,\u2009Von\u2009Alesch\u2009e\u2009Koffka\u2009\u2013\u2009alguns\u2009
dentre\u2009eles\u2009aliás,\u2009\u201cfarão\u201d\u2009posteriormente\u2009seu\u2009nome,\u2009testemunha\u2009assim\u2009o\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009
que\u2009podemos\u2009encontrá-los\u2009em\u2009dicionários\u2009de\u2009psicologia.

A\u2009ignorância,\u2009como\u2009o\u2009anonimato,\u2009entra\u2009portanto\u2009no\u2009laboratório\u2009quando\u2009os\u2009
sujeitos\u2009profanos\u2009são\u2009convidados\u2009para\u2009ele.\u2009E\u2009é\u2009na\u2009convergência\u2009dessa\u2009dupla\u2009apa-
rição\u2009que\u2009as\u2009questões\u2009me\u2009parecem\u2009se\u2009urdir.\u2009A\u2009ignorância\u2009e\u2009o\u2009anonimato\u2009se\u2009consti-
tuem\u2009em\u2009uma\u2009relação\u2009com\u2009o\u2009profano.\u2009Essas\u2009são\u2009técnicas\u2009que\u2009refletem\u2009e\u2009atualizam\u2009
a assimetria do expert e do profano.

Essas\u2009técnicas,\u2009de\u2009fato,\u2009traduzem\u2009sobretudo\u2009uma\u2009dificuldade\u2009que\u2009encontra\u2009a\u2009
psicologia\u2009como\u2009campo\u2009de\u2009saber:\u2009sua\u2009expertise\u2009pode\u2009sempre\u2009ser\u2009contestada.\u2009Não\u2009
podemos\u2009nos\u2009iludir,\u2009a\u2009história\u2009da\u2009psicologia\u2009é\u2009repleta\u2009de\u2009reivindicações\u2009a\u2009um\u2009saber\u2009
específico\u2009liberto\u2009de\u2009saberes\u2009populares.\u2009Muitos\u2009de\u2009seus\u2009manuais\u2009comentam\u2009além\u2009
disso,\u2009na\u2009introdução,\u2009a\u2009incoerência\u2009desses\u2009saberes\u2009dando\u2009como\u2009exemplo\u2009muitas\u2009
citações\u2009da\u2009sabedoria\u2009popular\u2009todas\u2009em\u2009contradição\u2009umas\u2009com\u2009as\u2009outras.

Podíamos\u2009refutar\u2009que\u2009essa\u2009vontade\u2009de\u2009ruptura\u2009com\u2009os\u2009saberes\u2009não\u2009cientí-
ficos\u2009marcou\u2009a\u2009história\u2009da\u2009maior\u2009parte\u2009das\u2009ciências\u2009\u2013\u2009a\u2009química\u2009com\u2009a\u2009alquimia,\u2009
a\u2009 astronomia\u2009 com\u2009a\u2009 astrologia.\u2009A\u2009psicologia,\u2009 todavia,\u2009 encontra\u2009 uma\u2009dificulda-
de\u2009suplementar