Anshan_ChinaandAfrica
25 pág.

Anshan_ChinaandAfrica


DisciplinaQuest Pol Internac da China13 materiais53 seguidores
Pré-visualização8 páginas
collaboration by burnishing its credentials as a reliable 
player in the international commercial satellite market.53 Additionally, China has 
recently sent oil expert and engineer Wang Qiming of Daqin to Sudan to provide 
African engineers with new technology that assists with the best-use practices 
RI\ufffdVHHPLQJO\\ufffdH[KDXVWHG\ufffdRLO\ufffdÀHOGV\ufffd54
Summit Diplomacy
China\u2019s core Africa policy principles have been elucidated by China\u2019s lead-
ers.55\ufffd&KDLUPDQ\ufffd0DR\ufffd\ufffdZKLOH\ufffdPHHWLQJ\ufffdZLWK\ufffd$VLDQ\ufffdDQG\ufffd$IULFDQ\ufffdYLVLWRUV\ufffdIRU\ufffdWKH\ufffdÀUVW\ufffd
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Li Anshan
China is bringing science 
and technology to Africa.
79
time in 1964, declared them close friends.56 Despite changes in leadership and a 
transformation of political outlooks, President Hu Jintao, in reinforcing China\u2019s 
position in 2006, stated that \u201cChina and Africa are good friends, good partners 
and good brothers.\u201d57
0DMRU\ufffdPHHWLQJV\ufffdRU\ufffd´VXPPLW\ufffdGLSORPDF\µ\ufffdEHWZHHQ\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdDQG\ufffd$IULFDQ\ufffdKHDGV\ufffd
of state also clearly reveal China\u2019s core policy principles. Since the 1960s, these 
meetings have been a key way to establish direct communication at the highest 
OHYHOV\ufffd RI\ufffd JRYHUQPHQW\ufffd DQG\ufffd VHW\ufffd WKH\ufffd WRQH\ufffd RI\ufffd UHODWLRQV\ufffd DQG\ufffdELODWHUDO\ufffd SROLFLHV\ufffd\ufffd7KH\\ufffd
have created mutual trust between heads of state and demonstrated mutual re-
spect between China and African countries. As early as 1963-64, Premier Zhou\u2019s 
visits to Africa impacted the structure of international relations as China won the 
friendship of many African nations, expanding its diplomatic reach.58\ufffd7KURXJK-
out China\u2019s policy shifts in Africa in the 1980s, the Chinese Premier initiated 
more visits to Africa, designed to reassure Africa of China\u2019s committed friendship 
despite China\u2019s burgeoning growth and new business partnerships with previ-
ous ideological competitors. China stated publicly, \u201cwe will not forget old friends 
when making new friends, or forget poor friends when making rich friends.\u201d59 
,PSRUWDQWO\\ufffd\ufffdVXPPLW\ufffdGLSORPDF\\ufffdKDV\ufffdVRXJKW\ufffdWR\ufffdLQVWLOO\ufffdFRQÀGHQFH\ufffdLQ\ufffdWKH\ufffdFRQVLV-
tent application of these principles to Sino-African relations. Reinforcing Sino-
African cooperation on the basis of equality has become a tradition in Chinese 
diplomacy. While the West largely neglected Africa after the Cold War, China\u2019s 
IRUHLJQ\ufffdPLQLVWHU\ufffdPDGH\ufffdKLV\ufffdYLVLWV\ufffdWR\ufffd$IULFDQ\ufffdQDWLRQV\ufffdWKH\ufffdÀUVW\ufffdRIÀFLDO\ufffdVWRS\ufffdDEURDG\ufffd
in every year from 1991 to 2007.60\ufffd7KHVH\ufffdYLVLWV\ufffdKDYH\ufffdEHHQ\ufffdERWK\ufffdV\PEROLF\ufffdDQG\ufffdUHDO\ufffd
gestures of China\u2019s respect for Africa. Since the turn of the 21st century, two-way 
visits have dramatically increased.61\ufffd 7KH\ufffd )RUXP\ufffd RQ\ufffd &KLQD\ufffd$IULFD\ufffd &RRSHUDWLRQ\ufffd
(FOCAC) has also been established, which in addition to its ambitious plans for 
Sino-African cooperation, provides a mechanism for routine meetings between 
Chinese and African heads of state. 
Challenges and Risks
While Africa has been transformed by China\u2019s growing presence on the con-
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Policy and Challenges
80
WLQHQW\ufffd\ufffdFRQÁLFW\ufffdKDV\ufffdDOVR\ufffdVXUIDFHG\ufffdZLWK\ufffdH[SDQGLQJ\ufffdLQWHUDFWLRQ\ufffd\ufffdSDUWLFXODUO\\ufffdZLWK\ufffd
labor practices and market strategies, competing commercial and national inter-
ests, competition from Western players already established on the continent and 
striking a sustainable balance between industry and the environment China has 
recognized these challenges and is searching for the most tenable solutions.
Labor Practices and Markets Strategies 
:LWK\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdEXVLQHVVHV\ufffdDQG\ufffdPDQXIDFWXUHG\ufffdJRRGV\ufffdÁRZLQJ\ufffdLQWR\ufffd$IULFD\ufffd\ufffdFRQÁLFW\ufffd
over differing labor practices and market strategies has arisen between Chinese 
and African enterprises. Chinese entrepreneurs rarely employ local workers in 
Africa.62 Rather, they are accustomed to bringing laborers from China and most 
PDQDJHPHQW\ufffd SRVLWLRQV\ufffd DUH\ufffd ÀOOHG\ufffd E\\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffd
nationals. From an economic perspective, it is 
PRUH\ufffdHIÀFLHQW\ufffdDQG\ufffdFRQYHQLHQW\ufffdIRU\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdHQ-
trepreneurs to recruit skilled workers in Chi-
QD\ufffdWKDQ\ufffdWR\ufffdWUDLQ\ufffdORFDO\ufffdZRUNHUV\ufffd\ufffd7KH\ufffdIRUPHU\ufffdDUH\ufffd
often more familiar with the technologies and face fewer language and cultural 
obstacles in communication with management. Chinese laborers abroad are also 
more compliant to the demanding labor practices Chinese managers insist upon, 
and are accustomed to working longer hours, working during local holidays and 
working overtime on weekends.63 Employing African workers entangles Chinese 
enterprises in local laws to a higher degree than employing Chinese nationals. 
7KHUH\ufffdLV\ufffdQR\ufffdGRXEW\ufffdWKDW\ufffdWKHVH\ufffdIDFWRUV\ufffdKDYH\ufffdD\ufffdGUDPDWLF\ufffdHIIHFW\ufffdRQ\ufffdHIÀFLHQF\\ufffd\ufffd
Chinese company practices also lead to discontent among the communities in 
which these enterprises operate, who perceive that Chinese companies are not 
contributing enough to local economies and employment.64 However, China\u2019s 
participation in African markets does help to improve the situation of African 
communities. Furthermore, as the role of Chinese enterprises shifts in Africa, the 
opportunity to contribute more to African society will emerge. In the past, Chi-
QHVH\ufffdHQWHUSULVHV\ufffdZHUH\ufffdHQJDJHG\ufffdLQ\ufffdÀQLWH\ufffd\ufffdVKRUW\ufffdWHUP\ufffdLQIUDVWUXFWXUDO\ufffd´DLG\ufffdSURMHFWV\ufffdµ\ufffd
+RZHYHU\ufffd\ufffdSURÀW\ufffdGULYHQ\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdEXVLQHVVHV\ufffdDUH\ufffd LQFUHDVLQJO\\ufffdHVWDEOLVKLQJ\ufffdWKHP-
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Li Anshan
81
Employing African workers 
entangles Chinese enterprises 
in local laws.
selves in African countries, with longer-term prospects. While for the moment 
VXFK\ufffdHQWHUSULVHV\ufffdKLUH\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdZRUNHUV\ufffdGXH\ufffdWR\ufffdWKH\ufffdVKRUW\ufffdWHUP\ufffdEHQHÀWV\ufffdWKH\\ufffdSUR-
vide, as Chinese business continue to expand in Africa, they will shift towards 
JUHDWHU\ufffdORFDOL]DWLRQ\ufffdRI\ufffdWKHLU\ufffdSUDFWLFHV\ufffd\ufffd7KLV\ufffdFKDQJH\ufffdKDV\ufffdWKH\ufffdSRWHQWLDO\ufffdWR\ufffdHYHQWXDOO\\ufffd
lower production costs and build a virtuous cycle of increased investment by 
&KLQHVH\ufffdFRPSDQLHV\ufffdDQG\ufffdEHQHÀWV\ufffdWR\ufffdWKH\ufffdORFDO\ufffdFRPPXQLW\\ufffd65 
$QRWKHU\ufffdVRXUFH\ufffdRI\ufffdFRQÁLFW\ufffdDULVHV\ufffd IURP\ufffdWKH\ufffdVXFFHVV\ufffdRI\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdJRRGV\ufffd LQ\ufffd$IUL-
can markets, which are often better quality and cheaper than local products. 
While African consumers are happy, parallel domestic industries (especially 
WH[WLOH\ufffdLQGXVWULHV\ufffd\ufffdVXIIHU\ufffdDV\ufffdD\ufffdUHVXOW\ufffd\ufffd7KLV\ufffdFRQÁLFW\ufffdLV\ufffdHYLGHQFHG\ufffdWKURXJK\ufffdWZR\ufffdPDVV\ufffd
demonstrations in Dakar, one in support of Chinese merchants, the other in op-
position.66 Similar protests have occurred in South Africa. However tensions 
dissipated when Sino-South African government discussions over the issue led 
China to unilaterally impose quotas upon its textile exports in order to allow the 
South African producers time to make their products competitive. Solving these 
VLWXDWLRQV\ufffdKDV\ufffdEHHQ\ufffdGLIÀFXOW\ufffdEXW\ufffdLQFOXGHV\ufffd\ufffdLQ\ufffdWKH\ufffdÀUVW\ufffdSODFH\ufffd\ufffdFRQVXOWDWLRQ\ufffdEHWZHHQ\ufffd
the governments of both sides.67 In this regard, routine multilateral talks between 
China and Africa have the potential to play an important role, as the two sides 
FDQ\ufffdUDSLGO\\ufffdIDFLOLWDWH\ufffdFRPPXQLFDWLRQ\ufffdEHWZHHQ\ufffdWKH\ufffdFRQÁLFWLQJ\ufffdSDUWLHV\ufffd\ufffdUHDFK\ufffdDQ\ufffd
understanding and diffuse trade frictions before they escalate any further. In ad-
dition, China\u2019s willingness to export technologies to Africa will also help local 
industries to gradually raise the quantity and quality of production.
Chinese National vs. Corporate Interests
7KH\ufffdUHDOLW\\ufffdLV\ufffdWKDW\ufffdWKH\ufffdLQWHUHVWV\ufffdRI\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdFRUSRUDWLRQV\ufffdRSHUDWLQJ\ufffdLQ\ufffd$IULFD\ufffdOLH\ufffd
in maximizing short-term economic gains, while Chinese national interests are 
more long term and focus on the overall relationship between China and Africa. 
7DNH\ufffdWKH\ufffdRLO\ufffdLQGXVWU\\ufffdDV\ufffdDQ\ufffdH[DPSOH\ufffd\ufffd7KH\ufffdPDLQ\ufffdSXUSRVH\ufffdRI\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdWUDQVQDWLRQDO\ufffd
RLO\ufffdHQWHUSULVHV\ufffdLQ\ufffd$IULFD\ufffdLV\ufffdWR\ufffdPDNH\ufffdSURÀWV\ufffd\ufffdZKLFK\ufffdLQ\ufffdWKLV\ufffdFDVH\ufffdPHDQV\ufffdRIWHQ\ufffdVHOO-
ing processed oil back to the country of origin or another country wishing to 
SXUFKDVH\ufffd LW\ufffd\ufffd UDWKHU\ufffdWKDQ\ufffdEDFN\ufffdWR\ufffd&KLQD\ufffd\ufffd ,Q\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdWKH\ufffd6XGDQ\ufffdSURMHFW\ufffdXQGHUWDNHQ\ufffd
by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) began producing oil with 
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Policy and Challenges
82
DQ\ufffdDQQXDO\ufffdFUXGH\ufffdSURGXFWLRQ\ufffdÀJXUH\ufffdRYHU\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdPLOOLRQ\ufffdWRQV\ufffd\ufffd+RZHYHU\ufffd\ufffdRQO\\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd
tons were imported to China.68 Although CNPC is a state holding company, its 
SXUVXLW\ufffdRI\ufffdSURÀW\ufffd LV\ufffdQRW\ufffdQHFHVVDULO\\ufffdFRLQFLGHQW\ufffdZLWK\ufffd&KLQD·V\ufffdSXUVXLW\ufffdRI\ufffdQDWLRQDO\ufffd