ASM Metals HandBook Volume 12 - Fractography
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ASM Metals HandBook Volume 12 - Fractography

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The Materials 
Information Company 
Publication Information and Contributors 
Fractography, was published in 1987 as Volume 12 of the ASM Handbook. The Volume was prepared under 
the direction of the ASM Handbook Committee. 
Authors and Reviewers 
· D.L. Bagnoli Mobil Research & Development Corporation 
· Kingshuk Banerji Georgia Institute of Technology 
· Bruce Boardman Deere & Company 
· R.D. Bucheit Battelle Columbus Laboratories 
· H. Burghard Southwest Research Institute 
· Theodore M. Clarke J.I. Case Company 
· E. Philip Dahlberg Metallurgical Consultants, Inc. 
· Barbara L. Gabriel Packer Engineering Associates, Inc. 
· J. Gurland Brown University 
· R.W. Hertzberg Lehigh University 
· Jan Hinsch E. Leitz, Inc. 
· Brian H. Kaye Laurentian University 
· Victor Kerlins McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company 
· Campbell Laird University of Pennsylvania 
· Robert McCoy Youngstown State University 
· W.C. McCrone McCrone Research Institute 
· C.R. Morin Packer Engineering Associates, Inc. 
· Alex J. Morris Olin Corporation 
· J.C. Murza The Timken Company 
· D.E. Passoja Technical Consultant 
· R.M. Pelloux Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
· Austin Phillips Technical Consultant 
· Robert O. Ritchie University of California at Berkeley 
· Cyril Stanley Smith Technical Consultant 
· Ervin E. Underwood Georgia Institute of Technology 
· George F. Vander Voort Carpenter Technology Corporation 
· George R. Yoder Naval Research Laboratory 
· F.G. Yost Sandia National Laboratory 
· Richard D. Zipp J.I. Case Company 
Contributors of Fractographs 
· R. Abrams Howmedica, Division of Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc. 
· C. Alstetter University of Illinois 
· C.-A. Baer California Polytechnic State University 
· R.K. Bhargava Xtek Inc. 
· H. Birnbaum University of Illinois 
· R.W. Bohl University of Illinois 
· W.L. Bradley Texas A&M University 
· E.V. Bravenec Anderson & Associates, Inc. 
· C.R. Brooks University of Tennessee 
· N. Brown University of Pennsylvania 
· C. Bryant De Havilland Aircraft Company of Canada Ltd. 
· D.A. Canonico C-E Power Systems Combustion Engineering Inc. 
· G.R. Caskey, Jr. Atomic Energy Division DuPont Company 
· S.-H. Chen Norton Christensen 
· A. Choudhury University of Tennessee 
· L. Clements San Jose State University 
· R.H. Dauskardt University of California 
· D.R. Diercks Argonne National Laboratory 
· S.L. Draper NASA Lewis Research Center 
· D.J. Duquette Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
· L.M. Eldoky University of Kansas 
· Z. Flanders Packer Engineering Associates Inc. 
· L. Fritzmeir Columbia University 
· M. Garshasb Syracuse University 
· D. Gaydosh NASA Lewis Research Center 
· E.P. George University of Pennsylvania 
· R. Goco California Polytechnic State University 
· G.M. Goodrich Taussig Associates Inc. 
· R.J. Gray Consultant 
· J.E. Hanafee Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 
· S. Harding University of Texas 
· C.E. Hartbower Consultant 
· H.H. Honnegger California Polytechnic State University 
· G. Hopple Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc. 
· T.E. Howson Columbia University 
· D. Huang Fuxin Mining Institute People's Republic of China 
· T.J. Hughel General Motors Research Laboratories 
· N.S. Jacobson NASA Lewis Research Center 
· W.L. Jensen Lockheed-Georgia Company 
· A. Johnson University of Louisville 
· J.R. Kattus Associated Metallurgical Consultants Inc. 
· J.R. Keiser Oak Ridge National Laboratory 
· C. Kim Naval Research Laboratory 
· H.W. Leavenworth, Jr. U.S. Bureau of Mines 
· P.R. Lee United Technologies 
· I. Le May Metallurgical Consulting Services Ltd. 
· R. Liu University of Illinois 
· X. Lu University of Pennsylvania 
· S.B. Luyckx University of the Witwatersrand South Africa 
· J.H. Maker Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc. 
· K. Marden California Polytechnic State University 
· H. Margolin Polytechnic Institute of New York 
· D. Matejczyk Columbia University 
· A.J. McEvily University of Connecticut 
· C.J. McMahon, Jr. University of Pennsylvania 
· E.A. Metzbower Naval Research Laboratory 
· R.V. Miner NASA Lewis Research Center 
· A.S. Moet Case Western Reserve University 
· D.W. Moon Naval Research Laboratory 
· M.J. Morgan University of Pennsylvania 
· J.M. Morris U.S. Department of Transportation 
· V.C. Nardonne Columbia University 
· N. Narita University of Illinois 
· F. Neub University of Toronto 
· J.E. Nolan Westinghouse Hanford Company 
· T. O'Donnell California Institute of Technology 
· J. Okuno California Institute of Technology 
· A.R. Olsen Oak Ridge National Laboratory 
· D.W. Petrasek NASA Lewis Research Center 
· D.P. Pope University of Pennsylvania 
· B. Pourlaidian University of Kansas 
· N. Pugh University of Illinois 
· R.E. Ricker University of Notre Dame 
· J.M. Rigsbee University of Illinois 
· R.O. Ritchie University of California at Berkeley 
· D. Roche California Polytechnic State University 
· R. Ruiz California Institute of Technology 
· J.A. Ruppen University of Connecticut 
· E.A. Schwarzkopf Columbia University 
· R.J. Schwinghamer NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 
· H.R. Shetty Zimmer Inc. 
· A. Shumka California Institute of Technology 
· J.L. Smialek NASA Lewis Research Center 
· H.J. Snyder Snyder Technical Laboratory 
· S.W. Stafford University of Texas 
· J. Stefani Columbia University 
· J.E. Stulga Columbia University 
· F.W. Tatar Factory Mutual Research Corporation 
· J.K. Tien Columbia University 
· P. Tung California Institute of Technology 
· T.V. Vijayaraghavan Polytechnic Institute of New York 
· R.C. Voigt University of Kansas 
· R.W. Vook Syracuse University 
· P.W. Walling Metcut Research Associates, Inc. 
· D.C. Wei Kelsey-Hayes Company 
· A.D. Wilson Lukens Steel Company 
· F.J. Worzala University of Wisconsin 
· D.J. Wulpi Consultant 
· R.D. Zipp J.I. Case Company 
Volume 12 of the 9th Edition of Metals Handbook is the culmination of 43 years of commitment on the part of 
ASM to the science of fracture studies. It was at the 26th Annual Convention of the Society in October of 1944 
that the term "fractography" was first introduced by Carl A. Zapffe, the foremost advocate and practitioner of 
early microfractography. Since then, the usefulness and importance of this tool have gained wide recognition. 
This Handbook encompasses every significant element of the discipline of fractography. Such depth and scope 
of coverage is achieved through a collection of definitive articles on all aspects of fractographic technique and 
interpretation. In addition, an Atlas of Fractographs containing 1343 illustrations is included. The product of 
several years of careful planning and preparation, the Atlas supplements the general articles and provides 
Handbook readers with an extensive compilation of fractographs that are useful when trying to recognize and 
interpret fracture phenomena of industrial alloys and engineered materials. 
The successful completion of this project is a tribute to the collective talents and hard work of the authors, 
reviewers, contributors of fractographs, and editorial staff. Special thanks are also due to the ASM Handbook 
Committee, whose members are responsible for the overall planning of each volume in the Handbook series. To 
all these men and women, we express our sincere gratitude. 
Raymond F. Decker 
ASM International 
Edward L. Langer 
Managing Director, 
ASM International 
The subject of fractography was first addressed in a Metals Handbook volume in 1974. Volume 9 of the 8th 
Edition, Fractography and Atlas of Fractographs, provided systematic and comprehensive treatment of what 
was at that time a