ASM Metals HandBook Volume 12 - Fractography
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ASM Metals HandBook Volume 12 - Fractography


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Metall., Vol 54 (No. 3), 1957 
73. C.D. Beachem, "Characterizing Fractures by Electron Fractography, Part IV, The Slow Growth and Rapid 
Propagation of a Crack Through a Notched Type 410 Stainless Steel Wire Specimen," NRL Memorandum 
Report 1297, Naval Research Laboratory, April 1962 
74. C.D. Beachem, "Gases in Steel (Electron Fractograhic Examination of Ductile Rupture Tearing in a 
Notched Wire Specimen)," NRL Problem Report, Naval Research Laboratory, Aug 1962 
75. C.D. Beachem, "An Electron Fractographic Study of the Mechanism of Ductile Rupture in Metals," NRL 
Report 5871, Naval Research Laboratory, 31 Dec 1962 
76. C.D. Beachem, "Effect of Test Temperature Upon the Topography of Fracture Surfaces of AMS 6434 
Sheet Steel Specimens," NRL Memorandum Report 1293, Naval Research Laboratory, March 1962 
77. C.D. Beachem, "Characterizing Fractures by Electron Fractography, Part V, Several Fracture Modes and 
Failure Conditions in Four Steel Specimens," NRL Memorandum Report 1352, Naval Research 
Laboratory, Aug 1962 
78. C.D. Beachem, Electron Fractographic studies of Mechanical Fracture Processes in Metals, J. Basic Eng. 
(Trans. ASME), 1964 
79. C.D. Beachem and D.A. Meyn, "Illustrated Glossary of Fractographic Terms," NRL Memorandum Report 
1547, Naval Research Laboratory, June 1964 
80. C.D. Beachem, B.F. Brown, and A.J. Edwards, "Characterizing Fractures by Electron Fractography, Part 
XII, Illustrated Glossary, Section 1, Quasi-Cleavage," NRL Memorandum Report 1432, Naval Research 
Laboratory, June 1963 
81. C.D. Beachem, An Electron Fractographic Study of the Influence of Plastic Strain Conditions Upon 
Ductile Rupture Processes in Metals, Trans. ASM, Vol 56 (No. 3), Sept 1963, p 318 
82. C.D. Beachem, "The Interpretation of Electron Microscope Fractographs," NRL Report 6360, Naval 
Research Laboratory, 21 Jan 1966 
83. C.D. Beachem, Electron Fractographic Studies of Mechanical Processes in Metals, Trans. ASME, Series 
D, Vol 87, 1965 
84. C.D. Beachem and D.A Meyn, "Fracture by Microscope Plastic Deformation Process," Paper 41, 
presented at the Seventieth Annual Meeting of ASTM, Boston, MA, American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 25-30 June 1967 
85. C.D. Beachem, "The Formation of Cleavage Tongues in Iron," NRL Report, Naval Research Laboratory, 
Feb 1966 
86. C.D. Beachem, "The Interpretation of Electron Microscope Fractographs," NRL Report No. 6360, Naval 
Research Laboratory, 21 Jan 1966 
87. C.D. Beachem, Microscopic Fatigue Fracture Surface Features in 2024-T3 Aluminum and the Influence of 
Crack Propagation Angle Upon Their Formation, Trans. ASM, Vol 60, 1967, p, 324 
88. C.D. Beachem, "The Origin of Tire Tracks," NRL Progress Report, Naval Research Laboratory, May 1966 
89. C.D. Beachem, "The Usefulness of Fractography," Paper 46, presented at the Seventieth Annual Meeting 
of ASTM, Boston, MA, American Society for Testing and Materials, 25-30 June, 1967 
90. C.D. Beachem, "The Crystallographic of Herringbone Fractures in an Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy," 
NRL Report, Naval Research Laboratory, Jan 1967 
91. C.D. Beachem and R.M.N. Pelloux, Electron Fractography--A Tool for the Study of Micromechanisms of 
Fracturing Processes, in Fracture Toughness Testing and Its Applications, STP 381, American Society for 
Testing and Materials, 1964 p 210-245 
92. R.M.N. Pelloux, "Influence of Constituent Particles on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Alloys," 
DI-82-0297, Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories, Sept 1963 
93. R.M.N. Pelloux, "The Analysis of Fracture Surfaces by Electron Microscopy," DI-82-0169-RI, Boeing 
Scientific Research Laboratories, Dec 1963 
94. R.M.N. Pelloux and J.C. McMillan, The Analysis of Fracture Surfaces by Electron Microscopy, in 
Proceeding of the First International Conference of Fracture, Vol 2, Japanese Society for Strength and 
Fracture of Materials, 1966 
95. R.M.N. Pelloux, The Analysis of Fracture Surfaces by Electron Microscopy, Met., Eng. Quart., Nov 1965, 
p 26-37 
96. O.C. Wells, A. Boyde, E. Lifshin, and A. Rezanowich, Scanning Electron Microscopy, McGraw-Hill, 
1974 
97. M. Knoll, Static Potential and Secondary Emission of Bodies Under Electron Irradiation, Z. Tech. Phys., 
Vol 11, 1935, p 467-475 (in German) 
98. M. von Ardenne, The Scanning Electron Microscope: Practical Construction, Z. Tech. Phys., Vol 19, 1938, 
p 407-416 (in German) 
99. M. von Ardenne, The Scanning Electron Microscope: Theoretical Fundamentals, Z. Tech. Phys., Vol 109, 
1938, p 553-572 
100. V.K. Zworykin, J. Hillier, and R.L. Snyder, A Scanning Electron Microscope, ASTM Bull., No. 117, 1942, 
p 14-23 
101. C. Brachet, Note on the Resolution of the Scanning Electron Microscope, Bull. L'Assoc. Tech. Mar. et 
Aero., No. 45, 1946, p 369-378 (in French) 
102. R. Bernard and F. Davione, The Scanning Electron Microscope, Ann. L'Univ. de Lyon, Ser. 3, Sci., B, Vol 
10, 1957, p 78-86 (in French) 
103. F. Davione, Scanning Electron Microscopy, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on 
Electron Microscopy, Springer Verlag, 1960, p 273-276 (in French) 
104. F. Davione, "Secondary Electron Emission of Metals Under Mechanical Strain," Ph.D. Dissertation, 
L'Universelle de Lyon, 1957 (in French) 
105. W.C. Nixon, "Twenty Years of Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1948-1968, In the Engineering 
Department, Cambridge University, England," Paper presented at The Scanning Electron Microscope--the 
Instrument and Its Applications symposium, Chicago, IL, IIT Research Institute, April 1968 
106. T.E. Everhart and R.F.M. Thornley, Wide-Band Detector for Micro-Microampere Low-Energy Electron 
Currents, J. Sci. Instrum., Vol 37, 1960, p 246-248 
107. A.V. Crewe, A New Kind of Scanning Microscope, J. Microsc., Vol 2, 1963, p 369-371 
108. A.D.G. Stewart and M.A. Snelling, "A New Scanning Electron Microscope," in Titlebach, 1965, p 55-56 
109. J.D. Verhoeven, Scanning Electron Microscopy, in Materials Characterization, Vol 10, 9th ed., Metals 
Handbook, 1986, p 490-515 
110. C.F. Tipper, D.I. Dagg, and O.C. Wells, Surface Fracture Markings on Alpha Iron Crystals, J. Iron Steel 
Inst., Vol 193, Oct 1959, p 133-141 
111. C. Laird and G.C. Smith, Crack Propagation in High Stress Fatigue, Philos. Mag., Vol 7, 1962, p 847-857 
112. J.T. McGrath, J.G. Buchanan, and R.C.A. Thurston, A Study of Fatigue and Impact Features With the 
Scanning Electron Microscope, J. Inst. Met., Vol 91, 1962, p 34-39 
113. T. Inoue, S. Matsuda, Y. Okamura, and K. Aoki, The Fracture of a Low Carbon Tempered Martensite, 
Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met., Vol 11, Jan 1970, p 36-43 
114. A. Rukwied and D.B. Ballard, Scanning Electron Microscope Fractography of Continuously Cast High 
Purity Copper After High Temperature Creep, Met. Trans., Vol 3, Nov 1972, p 2999-3008 
115. G.F. Pittinato, V. Kerlins, A. Phillips, and M.A. Russo, Ed., SEM/TEM Fractography Handbook, 
sponsored by Air Force Materials Laboratory, Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Air Force 
Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, published by Metals and Ceramics Information 
Center, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Dec 1975 
116. S. Bhattacharya, V.E. Johnson, S. Agarwal, and M.A.H. Howes, Ed., IITRI Fracture Handbook--Failure 
Analysis of Metallic Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Metals Research Division, IIT Research 
Institute, Jan 1979 
117. L. Engel and H. Klingele, An Atlas of Metal Damage, S. Murray, Trans., Prentice Hall, 1981 
118. E.E. Underwood, Quantitative Fractography, in Applied Metallography, G.F. Vander Voort, Ed., Van 
Nostrand Reinhold, 1986, to be published 
History of Fractography 
References 
1. C.A. Zapffe and M. Clogg, Jr., Fractography--A New Tool for Metallurgical Research, Preprint 36, 
American Society for Metals, 1944; later published in Trans. ASM, Vol 34, 1945, p 71-107 
2. J.L. McCall,