ASM Metals HandBook Volume 12 - Fractography
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ASM Metals HandBook Volume 12 - Fractography


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"Failure Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy," MCIC Report, Metals and Ceramics 
Information Center, Dec 1972 
3. C.A. Zapffe and C.O. Worden, Temperature and Stress Rate Affect Fractology of Ferrite Stainless, Iron 
Age, Vol 167 (No. 26), 1951, p 65-69 
4. J.L. McCall, Electron Fractography--Tools and Techniques, in Electron Fractography, STP 436, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, 1968, p 3-16 
5. C.S. Smith, A History of Metallography, The University of Chicago Press, 1960, p 97-127 
6. V. Biringuccio, De La Pirotechnia, 1540; see translation by M.T. Gnudi and C.S. Smith, American 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, 1942 
7. L. Ercker, Beschreibung Allerfürnemisten Mineralischen Ertzt und Berckwercksarten, 1st ed., G. 
Schwartz, 1574; see translation of 2nd ed. by A.G. Sisco and C.S. Smith, Lazarus Ercker's Treatise on 
Ores and Assaying, University of Chicago Press, 1951; see also E.V. Armstrong and H.S. Lukens, Lazarus 
Ercker and His "Probierbuch"; Sir John Pettus and His "Fleta Minor," J. Chem. Educ., Vol 16 1939, p 553-
562 
8. L. Savot, Discours sur les Médailles Antiques, 1627; see C.S. Smith, A History of Metallography, 
University of Chicago Press, 1960, p 99 
9. M. Jousee, Fidelle Ouverture de l'art de Serrurier, La Fleche, 1627; see translation by C.S. Smith and 
A.G. Sisco, Technol. Culture, Vol 2 (No. 2), 1961 p 131-145 
10. R.A.F. de Réaumur, L'Art de Convertir le Fer Forgé en Acier, et L'Art d'Adoucir le Fer Fondu, (The Art of 
Converting Wrought Iron to Steel and the Art of Softening Cast Iron), Michael Brunet, 1722; see 
translation by A.G. Sisco, Réaumur's Memoirs on Steel and Iron, University of Chicago Press, 1956 
11. R.A.F. de Réaumur, De l'Arrangement que Prennent les Parties des Matiéres Métalliques et Minerales, 
Lorsqu'aprés Avoir été Mises en Fusion, Elles Viennent à se Figer, Mém. Acad. Sci., 1724, p 307-316 
12. C.F. Geoffroy, Observations sur un Métal que Résulte de L'alliage du Cuivre & du Zinc, Mém. Acad. Sci., 
1725, p 57-66 
13. C.E. Gellert, Anfangsgründe der Metalurgischen Chemie (Elements of Metallurgical Chemistry), J. 
Wendler, 1750; see translation by J. Seiferth, Metallurgic Chemistry, T. Bechet, 1776 
14. K.F. Archard, Recherches sur les Propriétés des Alliages Métalliques, 1788 
15. R. Mallet, Physical Conditions Involved in the Construction of Artillery, 1856 
16. Officers of Ordnance Dept., U.S. Army, "Reports on the Strength and Other Properties of Metals for 
Cannons," H. Baird, 1856 
17. P. Tunner, Das Eisenhüttenwesen im Schweden, Engelhardt, 1858 
18. D. Kirkaldy, Results of an Experimental Inquiry into the Tensile Strength and Other Properties of Various 
Kinds of Wrought Iron and Steel, 1862 
19. E.F. Dürre, Über die Constitution des Roheisens und der Werth seiner Physikalischen Eigenschaften, 
1868; preliminary version in Berg- und Hüttenmannischen Zeitung (1865 and 1868) and in Zeitschrift für 
das Berg-Hütten- und Salienen-wesen, Vol 16, 1868, p 70-131, 271-301 
20. D.K. Tschernoff, Kriticheskii Obzor Statiei gg. Lavrova y Kalakutzkago o Stali v Stalnikh Orudiakh' i 
Sobstvennie ego Izsledovanie po Etomuje Predmetu (Critical Review of Articles by Messrs. Lavrov and 
Kalakutzkii on Steel and Steel Ordnance, with Original Investigations on the Same Subject), in Zapiski 
Russkago Tekhnicheskago Obshestva, 1868, p 399-440; see English translation by W. Anderson of 
Tschernoff's original contribution (p 423-440 only), On the Manufacture of Steel and the Mode of 
Working It, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 1880, p 286-307; see also French translation, Rev. Univ. Mines, Vol 
7, 1880, p 129 
21. D.K. Tschernoff, Izsledovanie, Otnosiashchiasia po Struktury Litikh Stalnykh Bolvanok (Investigations on 
the Structure of Cast Steel Ingots), in Zapiski Imperatorskago Russkago Teckhnicheskago Obshestva, 
1879, p 1-24; see English translation by W. Anderson, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 1880 p 152-183 
22. J. Percy, Metallurgy, Vol 1 to 4, John Murray, 1861-1880 
23. A. Martens, Über die Mikroskopische Untersuchung des Eisens, Z. Deut. Ing., Vol 22, 1878, p 11-18 
24. A. Martens, Zur Mikrostruktur des Spiegeleisens, Z. Deut. Ing., Vol 22, 1878, p 205-274, 481-488 
25. A. Martens, Ueber das Kleingefüge des Schmiedbaren Eisens, Stahl Eisen, Vol 7, 1887, p 235-242 
26. J.A. Brinell, Über die Texturveränderungen des Stahls bei Erhitzung und bei Abkühlung, Stahl Eisen, Vol 
11, 1885, p 611-620 
27. H.M. Howe, The Metallography of Steel and Cast Iron, McGraw-Hill, 1916, p 527, and Table 29 on p 
534-535. (Translation and condensation, with slight amendments, of original diagram from ref 19, p 611) 
28. B. Kirsh, Beiträge zum Studium des Fliessens, Mitt Hlg, 1887, p 67; 1888, p 37; 1889. p 9; see also G.C. 
Hennings, Adolf Marten, Handbook of Testing of Materials, Part I, John Wiley & Sons, 1899, p 103, 105 
29. R. Arpi, Report on Investigations Concerning the Fracture Test and the Swedish Standard Scale, 
Jernkontorets Ann., Vol 86, 1931, p 75-95 (in Swedish); see abstract in Stahl Eisen, Vol 51, 1931, p 1483-
1484 
30. R. Arpi, The Fracture Test as Used for Tool Steel in Sweden, Metallugia, Vol 11, 1935, p 123 
31. B.F. Shepherd, The P-F. Characteristics of Steel, Trans. ASM, Vol 22, 1934, p 979-1016 
32. B.F. Shepherd, Carburization of Steel, Trans. ASST, Vol 4, Aug 1923, p 171-196 
33. B.F. Shepherd, A Few Notes on the Shimer Hardening Process, Trans. ASST, Vol 5, May 1924, p 485-490 
34. C.A. Zapffe and G.A. Moore, A Micrographic Study of the Cleavage of Hydrogenized Ferrite, Trans. 
AIME, Vol 154, 1943, p 335-359 
35. C.A. Zapffe, Fractographic Structures in Bismuth, Met Prog., Vol 50, Aug 1946, p 283-286 
36. C.A. Zapffe, "Neumann Bands and Planar-Pressure Theory of Hydrogen Embrittlement," Iron and Steel 
Institute, Aug 1946 
37. C.A. Zapffe, Fractographic Structures in Zinc, Met. Prog., Vol 51, March 1947, p 428-431 
38. C.A. Zapffe, Étude Fractographique des Alliages Fer-Chrome, Rev. Met. (Paris), Vol 44 (No. 3 and 4), 
1947, p 91-96; see also C.A. Zapffe and F.K. Landgraf, Tearline Patterns in Ferrochromium, J. Appl. 
Phys., Vol 21 (No. 11), 1950, p 1197-1198 
39. C.A. Zapffe, C.O. Worden, and F.K. Landgraf, Cleavage Patterns Disclose "Toughness" of Metals, 
Science, Vol 108 (No. 2808), 1948, p 440-441 
40. C.A. Zapffe, F.K. Landgraf, and C.O. Worden, Transgranular Cleavage Facets in Cast Molybdenum, Met. 
Prog., Vol 54 (No. 3), 1948, p 328-331 
41. C.A. Zapffe, F.K. Landgraf, and C.O. Worden, History of Crystal Growth Revealed by Fractography, 
Sciences, Vol 107 (No. 2778), 1948, p 320-321 
42. C.A. Zapffe, Fractographic Structures in Antimony, Met. Prog., Vol 53, March 1948, p 377-381 
43. C.A. Zapffe, F.K. Landgraf, and C.O. Worden, Fractography: The Study of Fractures at High 
Magnifications, Iron Age, Vol 161, April 1948, p 76-82 
44. C.A. Zapffe, F.K. Landgraf, and C.O. Worden, Fractographic Study of Cast Molybdenum, Trans. AIME, 
Vol 180, 1949, p 616-636 
45. C.A. Zapffe and F.K. landgraf, Fractographic Examination of Tungsten, Trans. ASM, Vol 41, 1949, p 396-
418 
46. C.A. Zapffe and C.O. Worden, Deformation Phenomena on a Cleavage Facet of Iron, Met. Prog., Vol 55, 
March 1949, p 640-641 
47. C.A. Zapffe and C.O. Worden, Fractographic Study of Deformation and Cleavage in Ingot Iron, Preprint 
31, American Society for Metals, 1949; later published in Trans. ASM, Vol 42, 1950, p 577-602; 
discussion, p 602-603 
48. C.A. Zapffe, F.K. Landgraf, and C.O. Worden, Fractographic Examination of Ship Plate, Weld. J., Vol 28, 
March 1949, p 126s-135s 
49. C.A. Zapffe and F.K. Landgraf, Tearline Patterns in Ferrochromium, J. Appl. Phys., Vol 21, Nov 1950, p 
1197-1198 
50. C.A. Zapffe and C.O. Worden, Fractographic Registrations of Fatigue, Preprint 32, American Society for 
Metals, 1950; later published in Trans. ASM, Vol 43, 1951, p 958-969; discussion,