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and suspend-
ing the macronucleus ; found in some clevelandellid 
 armophoreans (Kph, Fig. 2.12dd). 
Kathrobic : preferring cold environments. 
Kinetal Segment : in a broad sense, used for a 
section of any row or file of kinetosomes ; see 
Kinetofragment . 
Kinetal Suture System : see Secant System . 
Kinetid : elementary repeating organellar complex
of the typical ciliate cortex , consisting of a kineto-
some (or two more kinetosomes) and its fibrillar 
associates, which include cilium, unit membranes,
alveoli, kinetodesma , and various ribbons, bands, or 
bundles of microtubules , including some nematodes-
mata , and sometimes also microfibrils, myonemes,
parasomal sacs, and extrusomes ; synonyms are 
34 2. Glossary of Terms and Concepts Useful in Ciliate Systematics
kinetosomal territory and ciliary corpuscle (Figs. 
2.1E, 2.2). 
Kineties : see Kinety . 
Kinetodesma (pl. Kinetodesmata ): typically peri-
odically striated, subpellicular fiber arising close 
to the base of a somatic kinetosome, near Triplets 
Numbers 5–8 (see Numbering Conventions ), and 
extending right or anteriad and toward or parallel 
to the organism’s pellicular surface and on the right 
side of the kinety involved ( Rule of Desmodexy ); 
due to fixation artifacts (?), some fibres, like the 
retrodesmal fiber , in the same triplet position, may 
be positional homologues; when kinetodesmata 
are of a length greater than the interkinetosomal 
distance along the kinety, they overlap, producing 
a bundle of fibers (Kd, Figs. 2.1, 2.2, 2.4J). 
Kinetodesmal Fiber : see Kinetodesma . 
Kinetodesmal Fibril : see Kinetodesma . 
Kinetodesmata : see Kinetodesma . 
Kinetofragment : segment, patch or short file of 
basically somatic kinetids in the general vicinity 
of the oral region , originating from the nearby 
anterior terminations of the somatic kineties con-
verging onto the general oral region; the frange
and pseudomembranelle may be considered to be 
Kinetofragmon : the assembly of kinetofragments
around the oral region ; found in nassophoreans . 
Kinetome : an organellar system composed of all 
kinetids (i.e., the kineties ) covering the body of 
a given ciliate; the total mosaic of an organism’s 
Kinetorhiza : a little-used synonym of ciliary 
rootlet . 
Kinetosomal Territory : see Kinetid . 
Kinetosome : homologue of centriole; cortical tubu-
lar cylinder of nine longitudinally oriented, equally 
spaced, skewed, peripheral triplets, each composed 
of three microtubules ; when viewed from deeper 
in the cytoplasm of the organism looking out-
ward, the nine triplets of microtubules are skewed 
inwardly, clockwise; typical size, ca . 1.0 µm long × 
0.25–0.3 µm diameter; when ciliferous , produces a 
cilium at its distal end (Ks, Figs. 2.1, 2.2). 
Kinetosome Triplet Numeration : see Numbering
Conventions . 
Kinety (pl. Kineties ): single structurally and func-
tionally integrated somatic file or row of kinetids , 
typically oriented longitudinally; may be composed 
of monokinetids , dikinetids or polykinetids ; ances-
tral condition presumed to be a bipolar kinety , with 
derived states as fragmented, intercalated, partial, 
and shortened; asymmetry of kinetids allowing 
recognition of anterior and posterior poles of the 
organism itself (see Rule of Desmodexy ); not to 
be used in reference to oral infraciliary structures 
(Fig. 2.2). 
Kinety Number 1 : the somatic kinety to the 
immediate right of the oral region or terminated 
anteriorly by the posterior margin of the oral 
region and/or identified as the rightmost postoral 
meridian ; in tetrahymenine hymenostomes , has 
two unique features or properties – (1) it is the 
so-called stomatogenic kinety or stomatogenous 
meridian (see Parakinetal Stomatogenesis ), and 
(2) it bears, or is topologically associated with, 
the cytoproct at its extreme posterior end; see 
Numbering Conventions (K1, Fig. 2.7a, 2.7b, 
2.7e, 2.7f, 2.7g). 
Kinety n : the last kinety obtained by number-
ing clockwise around the ciliate beginning with 
Kinety 1 ; see Numbering Conventions (Kn, Fig. 
2.7a, 2.7b, 2.7e, 2.7f, 2.7g). 
Kinety Numeration : see Numbering Conventions . 
Kinoplasm : see mention under Spasmoneme . 
Km Fiber : synonym for postciliodesma ; see LKm
Fiber . 
Knob : see Attachment Organelle . 
Lachmann’s Bristle : see Extensor Membrane . 
Lamina Corticalis (pl. Laminae Corticalis ): 
 dense fibrillar or filamentous layer beneath the 
pellicle, marking the ecto-endoplasmic boundary; 
in certain groups, seems to be indistinguishable 
from the epiplasm ; appears to be continuous with 
the filamentous annulus of the rhabdos in certain 
 haptorians ; a synonym of tela corticalis. 
Glossary 35
Larval Form : a motile migratory form or disper-
sive form in the life cycle of free-living sessile or 
sedentary ciliates; includes the bud of suctorians
and chonotrichs , but also the telotroch of peritrichs 
and the migratory stage of loricate heterotrichs ; 
sometimes called swarmers ; usually morphologi-
cally dissimilar to their parental forms or even the 
other filial product of the fission ; tomites or pho-
ronts of histophagous and parasitic species, which 
may well serve the same purpose, are traditionally 
not referred to as larval forms (Fig. 2.11B, 2.11C). 
Lasiosome : literally “woolly-body”; dense linear 
array of granules in the axoneme of the cilia of 
some hypotrich spirotrichs . 
Lepidosome : epicortical structures that often 
appear scale-like and that cover the body surface 
of a ciliate; a kind of extrusome . 
Lieberkühn, Organelle of : lenticular refractile 
structure invariably and exclusively found beneath 
the pellicle close to the left side of, or in the 
left wall of, the buccal cavity of ophryoglenine 
 hymenostomes ; may function in phototaxis. 
Life Cycle, Clonal : the physiological and genetic 
changes undergone by a clone of cells beginning 
with conjugation as the start of the life cycle “clock”; 
a series of physiological and genetic states described 
as immaturity, adolescence, maturity, and senescence; 
genetic research has demonstrated that senescent 
cells (e.g. Paramecium ) can be rejuvenated partially 
by autogamy and completely by conjugation , which 
essentially restarts the life cycle “clock”. 
Lips : generalized term, variously used; experts on 
different groups of ciliates may employ it for specific 
yet non-homologous structures (e.g., the lips of the 
 tintinnine lorica, the lips of the lorica of peritrichs). 
Lithosome : vesicle containing some inorganic 
material, often laid down in concentric layers. 
Littoral : pertaining to the zone of the shore between 
high- and low-water marks; this intertidal zone is the 
biotope of many marine psammophilic ciliates. 
LKm Fiber : structure composed of an assemblage 
of overlapping transverse microtubules originat-
ing near Triplet Numbers 4,5 (see Numbering
Conventions ) of the posterior kinetosome of a 
somatic dikinetid ; first described in the colpodean 
Woodruffia , the assemblage of microtubular ribbons
runs on the left side of the associated kinety ; totally 
different from a kinetodesma , with which some 
workers have confused it; see Postciliodesma
(LKm, Fig. 2.2). 
Locomotor Fringe : ring of specialized “com-
pound” ciliature (sometimes called pectinelles ) 
around the posterior part of the body of the 
telotroch of a sessiline peritrich and around the 
adhesive disc of a mature mobiline peritrich; used 
in swimming by the migratory larval form , and 
generally resorbed in the adult form ; also known 
as a trochal band (LF, Fig. 2.11B). 
Locus of Stripe Contrast : a ventral region of the 
body showing the greatest contrast with respect to 
width of contiguous granular, pigmented stripes; in 
Stentor , the site of oral anlage formation and also 
the region of stripe proliferation;

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