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its enlarged distal end) 
that connects to the contractile vacuole of a number 
of ciliates (e.g., certain peniculine hymenostomes ); 
see Afferent Canal (AS, Fig. 2.9Bf). 
Ampullocyst : kind of mucocyst found in certain 
 karyorelicteans ; see Mucocyst . 
Analogous : characters, traits, structures or 
organelles that have a similar function and are 
exhibited by organisms that do not share a recent 
common ancestry; see Homologous . 
Anarchic Field : group of barren or nonciliferous 
kinetosomes , in an apparently dis- or unorganized 
array, giving rise to the infraciliary bases of the oral 
ciliature (e.g., in some hymenostomes); a transient 
primordial field or ciliary anlage in an early stage 
of stomatogenesis (AF, Fig. 2.11Dd, 2.11De). 
Anisogamont : see Gamont . 
Anisotomic : literally “unequal parts”; see Fission . 
Anlage (pl. Anlagen ): primordium; a developing, 
differentiating, or even presumptive structure or 
organelle; used with numerous modifiers, such as 
nuclear-, cytoplasmic-, cortical-, oral-, somatic-, 
ciliary-; in ciliate morphogenesis, often a group of 
kinetosomes; see Anarchic Field , Germinal Row , 
and Scutica . 
Annulus (pl. Annuli ): used variously; the non-living 
portion, also called the sheath, of the contractile stalk 
of some peritrichs , which surrounds the central 
membrane-bound myofibrillar bundle or spasmo neme ; 
band(s) of fibrous, filamentous or dense amorphic 
material encircling at various levels, the cytopharyngeal 
apparatus of certain litostomes , phyllopharyngeans , 
and nassophoreans ; various ring-like structures or 
markings in general, including the pellicular striae on 
the zooid of certain peritrichs . 
Antecorpy, Rule of : new somatic kinetosomes 
always arise anterior to old ones. 
Apical Funnel : distally drawn-out anterior end 
of many chonotrichs , sometimes lined with atrial
ciliature and leading posteriorly to the cytostome; 
ontogenetically and phylogenetically, the body’s 
ventral surface (ApF, Fig. 2.11Ca). 
Apokinetal : type of stomatogenesis in which the 
kinetosomes of the anlage have no apparent pre-
association with either somatic kineties or the 
parental oral apparatus; found in some entodinio-
morphids and many spirotrichs ; formerly known as 
the de novo kinetosomal mode of stomatogenesis;
see Epiapokinetal and Hypoapokinetal (Fig. 
2.11Dh, 2.11Di). 
Apomorphic (adj.): see Apomorphy . 
Apomorphy : any derived and homologous character; 
a character or attribute occurring or arising at a 
branching point and carried through one descending 
group in a phyletic lineage; a derived character that 
is less like or has less resemblance to the ancestral 
condition of the attribute in question or to that of the 
homologous character in the phylogenetically most 
closely related group; see Plesiomorphy . 
Arboroid Colony : zooids disposed in a dichotomous 
branching or tree-like manner, interconnected by 
either stalks or loricae (e.g., as shown by many 
sessiline peritrichs ); dendroid and dendritic are 
synonyms of arboroid (Fig. 2.8Ak, 2.8Al, 2.8Bc). 
Argentophilic : literally silver-loving, referring to 
structures or associated elements that react posi-
tively to silver compounds; see Silver-impregnation 
Techniques (Figs. 2.3, 2.4). 
Argyrome : whole system of pellicular or cortical 
argentophilic structures or markings revealed by 
silver impregnation techniques , particularly wet and 
dry silver nitrate methods; often may be indication 
of cortical filaments or of points or lines of contact 
of alveolar membranes; is not identical with the 
infraciliature , although superficially it shows over-
lapping in some components (e.g., the all-important
kinetosomes are part of both systems); highly 
useful in taxonomy, comparative morphology, 
and morphogenetic studies; principal synonyms 
are silverline system, Silberliniensytem, and 
neuro formative system; see Silver-impregnation 
Techniques .
18 2. Glossary of Terms and Concepts Useful in Ciliate Systematics
Asexual : typically a kind of reproduction (i.e., 
binary fission ), which does not involve sexual 
phenomena . 
Asexual Reproduction : see Fission . 
Astomy (adj. Astomatous ): condition of being 
mouthless, without a cytostome, whether naturally 
or experimentally derived; one entire subclass, the 
 Astomatia , exhibits this naturally. 
Atrial Ciliature : type of cilia or ciliary organelles 
associated with the atrium and limited to occur-
rence in certain cyrtophorine phyllopharyngeans ; 
relatively simple in organization, with infraciliary 
bases of kinetofragmental origin; the only cilia in 
some chonotrichs , where it may line part of the api-
cal funnel (AtC, Fig. 2.11Ca). 
Atrium (pl. Atria ): a non-ciliated oral cavity or 
depression around or in close proximity to the cyto-
stome of certain phyllopharyngeans often bordered 
by atrial ciliature (At, Fig. 2.5Cd). 
Attachment Disc : see Adhesive Disc . 
Attachment Knob : enlarged distal end of a sucto-
rial tentacle or of the sucking tube of rhynchodine 
 phyllopharyngeans ; adheres to or embeds itself in 
the body of a prey or host cell; when the knob is 
particularly prominent, the tentacle is said to be a 
capitate tentacle (AK, Fig. 2.9Cd). 
Attachment Organelle : nonspecific name for 
all sorts of adhesive discs , crochets, filaments , 
hooks, mucrons , spine , stalk , suckers , tentacles , 
or even thigmotactic cilia used in a temporary or 
permanent manner to attach an individual cell or a 
colony to some living or inanimate substratum; see 
Holdfast Organelle (Fig. 2.9B). 
Aufwuchs Community : a non-preferred term; see 
Biofilm . 
Autogamy : self-fertilization type of sexual pheno-
menon ; ultimately results in extreme inbreeding, 
since only single organisms are involved; believed 
to increase the longevity of a clone ; when auto-
gamy occurs in each member of a paired set of 
temporarily fused organisms, the phenomenon is 
sometimes termed cytogamy or autogamy in pairs; 
the process is always followed by fission of the 
Autogamy in Pairs : see Autogamy . 
Autonomous : now discarded term, along with 
semi-autonomous, for a mode of stomatogenesis ; 
see Buccokinetal . 
Autotrophic : capable of synthesizing its own 
organic molecules, principally using photosynthesis 
in eukaryotes (i.e., photoautotrophic); see Hetero-
trophic and Mixotrophic . 
Auxomorphy : morphological-evolutionary rela-
tionship between two forms, in a postulated ances-
tor-descendant relationship in which is shown 
a sameness of certain structures possessed by 
both but with an apparent increase in the size or 
number of component parts comprising those 
structures by the process of polymerization in the 
presumed descendant (e.g., compare Dexiotricha
and Loxocephalus ). 
Axenic Culture : literally, “without strangers”; lab-
oratory growth of organisms in a “pure” medium, 
although not necessarily chemically defined, in 
which no other living organisms of any kind can 
be present. 
Axoneme : see Cilium (Axn, Fig. 2.1B). 
Axosome : see Cilium (Axs, Fig. 2.1B). 
AZM : see Adoral Zone of Membranelles . 
Bactivorous : see Bacterivorous . 
Bacterivorous : feeding on bacteria; the preferred 
term; see Microphagous . 
Bacteriovorous : see Bacterivorous . 
Barren Kinetosome : basal body not associated, 
always or at a given time, with a cilium; exhibition
of a nonciliferous (or aciliferous) state; a particu-
larly common condition of certain kinetosomes 
during some stages of stomatogenesis . 
Basal Body : kinetosome ; blepharoplast of flagel-
lates; in a popular usage, a synonym of the kineto-
some of ciliated protozoa. 
Basal Disc : see Adhesive Disc . 
Basal Fibers : see Basal Microtubules . 
Basal Granule : now discarded name for kineto-
some or basal body . 
Glossary 19
Basalkörper : see Cilium . 
Basal Microtubules : set, group, ribbon or

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