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A A comparison of homothetogenic fission ( a ) in the ciliate Tetrahymena
with symmetrogenic fission ( b ) in an idealized flagellate. The proter is the anterior cell and the opisthe the posterior 
cell, both of which are replicating cortical structures, such as the oral apparatus (OA), contractile vacuole pores 
(CVP), and cytoproct (Cyp). B An adult of the peritrich Epistylis (left) and its telotroch or bud (right). The adoral
ciliary spiral (ACS) encircles the anterior end above the collarette (Colt). Pellicular striae (PelStr) adorn the body of 
the zooid , which has attached to the substratum by secreting a stalk (St) or peduncle (Pdc) using the scopula (Sa). 
The telotroch swims using the cilia of the locomotor fringe (LF) or telotroch band (TBd). C Kinds of budding . ( a ) 
 Cryptogemmous budding in the chonotrich Cristichona . The atrial ciliature (AtC) of the adult lines the apical funnel 
(ApF), separated from the body by the collar (Col). The bud forms in the crypt (Crp). ( b–d ) Budding in suctoria . 
(b ) Endogenous budding in Tokophrya occurs in a brood pouch (BPch) and the bud exits through a birth pore (BPr). 
(c ) Multiple exogenous budding of Ephelota . ( d ) Evaginative budding of Discophrya with its sucking tentacles 
(SuT). These four forms are attached to the substratum by a stalk (St) or peduncle (Pdc). In the suctorians , the stalk 
is secreted by the scopuloid (Sd). D Major modes of stomatogenesis . ( a–c ) Telokinetal . Holotelokinetal in the lito-
stome Alloiozona ( a ) and merotelokinetal in a small and larger colpodean Colpoda spp. ( b , c ). ( d , e ) Parakinetal . The 
 anarchic field (AF) develops along the stomatogenic kinety (SK) in the monoparakinetal mode in the hymenostome 
Tetrahymena and along several somatic kineties in the polyparakinetal mode in the heterotrich Condylostoma . ( f , g ) 
 Buccokinetal . ( f ) Scuticobuccokinetal with involvement of the scutica (Sc) in the scuticociliate Pseudocohnilembus . 
(g ) In the peniculine Urocentrum , a stomatogenic field (SF) forms adjacent to the parental oral structures. ( h ) 
 Apokinetal . Kinetosomal proliferation may occur in an intracytoplasmic pouch (IcP) in the oligotrich Strombidium . 
(i ) Cryptotelokinetal . Kinetosomal replication may occur in an intracytoplasmic pouch (IcP), arising from non-ciliated
cortical kinetosomes as in the entodiniomorphid Entodinium
Glossary 73
Fig. 2.12. Macronuclei (stippled) and micronuclei (solid) of diverse ciliates. Nuclei in general are not distinctive 
of different major groups of ciliates. The outlines of the bodies are shown roughly to scale, with the exception of 
Loxodes ( i ) and Stentor ( w ), which are reduced a further 50%. ( a ) The haptorian Dileptus . ( b ) The peritrich Vorticella . 
(c ) The peniculine Paramecium . ( d ) A stichotrich . ( e ) An amicronucleate Tetrahymena . ( f ) The astome Durchoniella . 
(g ) The karyorelictean Tracheloraphis , partly contracted with its aggregrate of nuclei above, bearing nucleoli (Nuc). 
(h ) The scuticociliate Cyclidium . ( i ) The karyorelictean Loxodes with its paired macronucleus with a nucleolus (Nuc) 
and micronucleus . ( j ) The haptorian Spathidium . ( k ) The stichotrich Plagiotoma . ( l ) The scuticociliate Schizocaryum . 
(m ) The haptorian Didinium . ( n ) The tintinnid Tintinnopsis . ( o ) The suctorian Ephelota . ( p ) The prostome Urotricha . 
(q ) The mobiline peritrich Leiotrocha . ( r ) The chonotrich Spirochona whose heteromerous macronucleus (right) has 
an orthomere (Om) and a paramere (Pm) with an endosome (End). ( s ) The hypotrich Euplotes with two replication 
bands (RB). ( t ) The stichotrich Parastylonychia with replication bands (RB) in each nodule. ( u ) The hymenostome 
Deltopylum . ( v ) The rhynchodine Parahypocoma . ( w ) The heterotrich Stentor . ( x ) The hypotrich Aspidisca . ( y ) The 
 karyorelictean Remanella . ( z ) The armophorian Brachonella . ( aa ) The rhynchodine Insignicoma . ( bb ) The cyrto-
phorine Chilodonella with its heteromerous macronucleus (right) showing the paramere (Pm) with its endosome 
(End) embedded in the orthomere (Om). ( cc ) The entodiniomorphid Epidinium . ( dd ) The clevelandellid Nyctotherus
whose macronucleus is anchored by a karyophore (Kph). ( ee ) The astome Protanoplophrya