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distinguished by longer coronal ciliature from a 
posteriorly adjacent neck; also used for the border 
membrane of mobiline peritrichs . 
Coronal Ciliature : term used in different ways, but 
most commonly referring to the circlet of relatively 
long cilia at the ends of somatic kineties or isolated 
from them and surrounding the apical cytostomal 
area, the corona , of various haptorians and located 
anterior to the neck region of the body. 
Cortex (pl. Cortices ): in the broadest sense, the outer
portion or “layer” of the ciliate body, sometimes 
termed the cell envelope; includes the pellicle and 
the infraciliature sensu lato and bears the cilia ; its 
various openings, pellicular ridges , alveoli , cilifer-
ous kinetosomes , and their fibrous and microtubular 
associates comprise the corticotype ; mitochondria 
are in the cortex of many ciliates. 
Cortical Vesicle : see Alveolus, Pellicular . 
Corticotype : specific pattern of cortical structures 
or organelles found to be characteristic of a given 
organism or population of organisms within a species;
cortical pattern especially as made visible follow-
ing application of silver-impregnation techniques
(Figs. 2.3, 2.4). 
Cosmopolitan : capable of population growth in 
many different places worldwide. 
Crista (pl. Cristae ): see mention under Mito-
chondrion . 
Crochet : see Attachment Organelle . 
Crypt : see Brood Pouch ; but this is the preferred 
term for use with chonotrichs ; also occasionally 
employed in a more general sense for any cleft 
or depression in the body or elsewhere (Crp, Fig. 
Cryptogemmy : see Budding and Endogenous
Budding .
Cryptotelokinetal : telokinetal stomatogenesis in 
which the oral anlage originates as subequa-
torial kineto fragments derived from non-ciliated 
kinetosomes residing in subcortical pouches; found 
in entodiniomorphid trichostomes . 
Crystallocyst : minute body, quite numerous in the 
cortex of the scuticociliate Conchophthirus ; pos-
sibly a kind of extrusome . 
Cursorial : adapted to or specialized for “running”; 
true of some hypotrich and stichotrich cirri . 
Cuticular Pore : see Pellicular Pore . 
Cyrtocyst : a short, curved extrusome found sub-
pellicularly in the haptorian Didinium . 
Cyrtos : tubular cytopharyngeal apparatus , often 
curved, the walls of which are strengthened by lon-
gitudinally arranged nematodesmata derived from 
circumoral kinetosomes and lined with extensions 
Glossary 25
of postciliary microtubules ; the nematodesmata may 
be interconnected and/or wrapped circumferentially 
by annular sheaths of diffuse fibrous material and an 
amorphous dense substance that may form capitula
proximally; contains no toxicysts; septa and spe-
cialized phagoplasm may be present; typical of 
members of the Classes PHYLLOPHARYNGEA 
and NASSOPHOREA , including especially the “ cyrto-
phorine gymnostomes ” of older classifications; 
principal synonyms include nasse and pharyngeal 
basket; of Greek derivation, the word literally means 
“curved” but also may be extended to imply “basket” 
or “cage”, all three descriptively appropriate to its 
usage here; the cyrtos is to be compared with the 
rhabdos , the other major type of cytopharyn geal 
apparatus characteristic of litostome ciliates, alleg-
edly less complex, non-curved, often containing 
toxicysts, and lined with transverse and bulge micro-
tubules (Figs. 2.5D, 2.7j). 
Cyst : non-motile inactive stage in the life cycle 
of many ciliates, generally thought to serve the 
roles of protection and dispersal; when considered 
a protective stage, organism typically rounded 
up, mouthless, and surrounded by three or more 
secreted layers or “membranes” (i.e. pericyst, ecto-
cyst, mesocyst, endocyst, metacyst); sculptured 
on the outside, and with or without an emergence 
pore, which may have an operculum ; several types 
have been described, indicating the diverse functions
of cysts – (1) digestive, (2) division, multiplica-
tive, propagative or reproductive, (3) infective, (4) 
invasion (cuticular), (5) phoretic, (6) protective, (7) 
reorganization or reconstructive, (8) resting, and 
(9) temporary (Fig. 2.9A). 
Cystation : processes involved in formation of and 
departure from a cyst . 
Cystic Membrane : see Cyst . 
Cyst Wall : see Cyst . 
Cytobrain : see Neuromotorium . 
Cytogamy : autogamy in pairs; non-preferred term. 
Cytokinesis : strictly applied meaning division of 
the cytoplasm; often used in a general sense as a 
synonym of cell division (see Fission ). 
Cytopharyngeal Apparatus (pl. Apparati ): the 
complex of microtubular and microfilamentous 
components that support the cytopharynx ; most 
conspicuously developed in ciliates that have the 
cyrtos or the rhabdos ; see Cytopharynx . 
Cytopharyngeal Armature : refers to the nemato-
desmal elements of a cytopharynx , especially of 
the cyrtos . 
Cytopharyngeal Basket : see Cyrtos and Rhabdos . 
Cytopharyngeal Pouch : reservoir-like enlarge-
ment or receiving vacuole of the cytopharynx of a 
few ciliates (e.g. the carnivorous macrostome stage 
of Tetrahymena vorax ); when food-filled, it pinches 
off as a regular membrane-bound food vacuole . 
Cytopharyngeal Rod : synonym for a nema-
todesma that supports the cytopharynx ; see Cyrtos
and Rhabdos . 
Cytopharynx (pl. Cytopharynges ): non-ciliated 
tubular passageway of varying length in different 
ciliates, leading from the cytostome proper into the 
inner cytoplasm of the organism; typically, food
vacuoles are formed at its inner or distal end, when 
it retains its own integrity during the feeding proc-
ess; when its walls are particularly strengthened, 
the cytopharyngeal apparatus may be known by 
such specialized names as cyrtos or rhabdos (Cph, 
Figs. 2.5Ca, 2.6Ac). 
Cytoproct ( Cyp ): cell anus; when present, gener-
ally permanent, slit-like opening in the pellicle , 
near the posterior end of the body, through which 
egesta may be discharged; its edges, resembling a 
kind of pelli cular ridge and reinforced with micro-
tubules, are argentophilic ; in some species, the 
Cyp is a cortical landmark of taxonomic signifi-
cance, located in or just to the left of the posterior 
portion of kinety number 1 (Cyp, Figs. 2.3Ai, 2.4K, 
2.7f, 2.7i, 2.11Aa). 
Cytopyge : a non-preferred term; see Cytoproct . 
Cytoskeleton : the complex of microtubular and 
microfilamentous components in the cytoplasm 
that provide structure and form to the cell body; 
generalized term referring to any secreted inor-
ganic or proteinaceous material within or below 
or on the surface of a ciliate, covering or involving 
all or some specific part of the body and lending 
considerable rigidity to the shape of the organism; 
see Skeletogenous Structure , a term with which it 
is broadly synonymous, although the emphasis in 
meaning may vary in usage by different workers. 
26 2. Glossary of Terms and Concepts Useful in Ciliate Systematics
Cytospindle : sets of longitudinally-oriented cortical 
microtubular ribbons that appear transiently during 
cytokinesis of some nassophoreans and peniculines . 
Cytostome : literally “cell mouth”; the “true” mouth 
or oral opening; simply a two-dimensional aperture 
through which food materials pass into the endo-
plasm of the organism via a more or less distinct 
cytopharynx ; may open directly to the exterior or be 
sunken into a depression or oral cavity of some kind, 
such as an atrium , vestibulum , or buccal cavity ; often 
definable as the level at which pellicular alveolar sacs 
are no longer present, it may occur as an angled or 
tipped elliptical opening with a long axis of consider-
able length (Cs, Figs. 2.5Ca, 2.6Aa). 
Cytostome-cytopharyngeal Complex : convenient 
generalized term to refer to the inseparable comple-
ment of the cytostome and the adjacent and really 
continuous cytopharynx . 
Cytotaxis : broad concept that considers the

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