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and loricate; tentacles borne on actinophores in 
some species, and others with prehensile as well 
as suctorial tentacles; exogenous budding, most 
often monogemmic, but polygemmic in some 
species, or by binary fission with no appreciable 
invagination of parental cortex ; small permanent 
field of non-ciliferous kinetosomes in vicinity of 
contractile vacuole; migratory larval form typically 
large or long, the former with complex ventral cili-
ature, derived from the parental kinetosomal field, 
but some of the longer larvae practically devoid 
of cilia, vermiform, and incapable of swimming; 
majority marine, typically solitary forms, and free-
living or ectocommensal; 17 families. 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 389
 Family ALLANTOSOMATIDAE Jankowski, 
 Size, small to medium; trophont, elongated, 
cylindroid; tentacles, capitate or rod-like, in 
fascicles or rows, at the poles of the body or on 
actinophores, or evenly distributed ; reproduc-
tion by binary fission; macronucleus, globular 
to ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, present; in terrestrial habitats as endo-
symbionts in the digestive tracts of mammals, 
such as horses, elephants, and rhinoceros ; five 
 – Allantosoma Gassovsky, 1919 
 – Allantoxena Jankowski, 1978 
 – Arcosoma Jankowski, 1967 
 – Strelkowella Kornilova, 2004 *
 – Vanhovenia Dovgal, 2002 *
 Family DENTACINETIDAE Batisse, 1992 
 Size, small to medium; trophonts, elongate 
ovoid to pyramidal, with longitudinal cortical 
ribs ; with stalk, that sometimes extends over body 
as a pseudolorica; tentacles, clavate and agile, 
in single, centroapical fascicle, conspicuously 
folded on retraction; swarmers, vermiform with 
a long terminal neck, bearing a lozenge-like, 
apical adhesive organelle for exploration prior 
to attachment by the “posterior” scopuloid ; 
macronucleus, ellipsoid; micronucleus, 1–3; con-
tractile vacuole, present; in marine habitats as 
ectocommensals on harpacticoid copepods ; two 
 – Dentacineta Jankowski, 1978 
 – Pleurophryodendron Jankowski, 1978 
 Family DENDROSOMIDIDAE Jankowski, 1978 
 Size, medium; trophonts with ramified body; 
tentacles, capitate, in fascicles or rows on 
well-developed actinophores or branches of 
the body ; swarmers, vermiform; macronucleus, 
globular to ribbon-like and ramified; micronu-
clei, numerous; contractile vacuole, present; in 
marine habitats as ectocommensals on crusta-
ceans ; four genera. 
 – Asterifer Jankowski, 1967 (subj. syn. 
Ophryodendron ) 
 – Dendrosomides Collin, 1905 
 – Leboransia Dovgal, 2002 *
 – Rondosomides Jankowski, 1981 
 Family EPHELOTIDAE Kent, 1882 
 (syn. Hemiophryidae , Ophryocephalidae , Tuni-
cophryidae ) 
 Size, large; trophonts, truncate-spherical; some 
species loricate and stalked; tentacles, of two kinds 
– shorter, extensible, feeding tentacles with flat 
tips and longer, pointed, non-feeding, prehensile 
ones, both bearing haptocysts ; swarmers, ellip-
soidal and flattened, with ciliary field horseshoe-
shaped; swarmers, produced synchronously and 
multiply by polyexogemmy; macronucleus, usu-
ally ramified, crown-like; micronuclei, numerous; 
contractile vacuole, present; in marine habitats as 
ectocommensals on various marine invertebrates; 
eight genera. 
 – Ephelota Wright, 1858 
 – Metephelota Willis, 1945 
 – Ophiurephelota Jankowski, 1981 
 – Ophryocephalus Wailes, 1925 
 – Podocyathus Kent, 1882 
 – Shellephelota Jankowski, 1981 
 – Thaumatophrya Collin, 1912 
 – Tunicophrya Jankowski, 1973 
 Family LECANOPHRYIDAE Jankowski, 1973 
 Size, small to medium; trophont, goblet-shaped 
or laterally flattened; pellicle, thick, girdle-like; 
stalked; tentacles, capitate, apical, arranged in 
rows or in fascicles on actinophores ; swarmer
with invaginated gutter ; macronucleus, ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; 
in brackish and freshwater habitats as ectocom-
mensals on the antennules of harpacticoid copep-
ods ; two genera. 
 – Lecanophrya Jankowski, 1994 
 – Lecanophryella Dovgal, 1985 
 Family METACINETIDAE Bütschli, 1889 
 (syns. Beckmaniidae , Urnulidae ) 
 Size, small; trophont, spheroid, not basally 
attached to lorica, which has several radial slits 
in the distal half, splitting it into triangular 
valves ; possibly stalked; tentacles, capitate, single 
390 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
or numerous, arranged in fascicles or rows, and 
extending out through slits in the lorica; repro-
duction by semi-circumvaginative budding with 
a lateral protomite; swarmer, ovoid, with spiral 
kineties; macronucleus, ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, present; in marine 
and freshwater habitats, free-living and sometimes 
as ectocommensals on aquatic invertebrates or as 
parasites on peritrichs and other suctorians ; two 
 – Metacineta Bütschli, 1889 
 – Urnula Claparède & Lachmann, 1857 
 Family MANUELOPHRYIDAE Dovgal, 2002 
 Size, small; trophont, spherical or sac-like, 
attached to host by a single rod-like tentacle or 
by a basal protuberance of the stylotheca ; some 
forms loricate; reproduction by a lateral semi-cir-
cumvaginative budding; macronucleus, globular; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; 
in marine and freshwater habitats as ectopara-
sites of sessile ciliates ; three genera. 
 – Manuelophrya Matthes in Jankowski, 1997 
 – Mistarcon Jankowski, 1997 
 – Pseudogemmides Kormos, 1935 
 Family OPHRYODENDRIDAE Stein, 1867 
 (syns. Asteriferida p.p ., Asteriferina p.p ., Core-
thriidae , Crevicometidae , Loricodendridae , Nem-
ertodendr(on)idea , Stylostom(at)idae ) 
 Size, large; trophonts of somewhat baggy or 
irregular shape, broadly attached to substra-
tum ; with or without definitive stalk; some loricate 
forms; tentacles, rod-like or ramified, in fascicles 
on one or more prominent, extensible branches, 
often called trunks or actinophores ; swarmers, 
vermiform; macronucleus, extensively ramified; 
micronuclei, often numerous; contractile vacuole, 
present; having a complex endoplasmic canal net-
work containing endosymbiotic bacteria; in marine 
habitats as ectocommensals on hydrozoans and 
 crustaceans ; seven genera. 
 – Corethria Wright, 1859 (subj. syn. 
Ophryodendron ) 
 – Crevicometes Jankowski, 1981 
 – Loricodendron Jankowski, 1973 (subj. syn. 
Ophryodendron ) 
 – Ophryodendron Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 
 – Schizactinia Jankowski, 1967 
 – Spongiarcon Jankowski, 1980 
 – Syllarcon Jankowski, 1981 
 Family PARACINETIDAE Jankowski, 1978 
 (syns. Loricophryidae , Luxophryidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; trophont, spherical or 
sac-like, basally attached to conical lorica on 
long stalk ; lorica, without slits or notches; tenta-
cles, capitate, grouped apically in a single fascicle 
or row; swarmers, ovoid, formed apically, with 
somatic kineties disposed in “U” around body; 
macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, may be multiple; 
resting cysts; in marine, brackish, freshwater, and 
terrestrial habitats on inanimate substrates and as 
ectosymbionts on aquatic plants and animals; seven 
 – Actinocyathula Corliss, 1960 
 – Distarcon Jankowski, 1987 [not listed in 
 – Limnoricus Jankowski, 1981 
 – Loricophrya Matthes, 1956 
 – Luxophrya Jankowski, 1978 
 – Nipponarcon Jankowski, 1981 
 – Paracineta Collin, 1911 
 Family PHALACROCLEPTIDAE Kozloff, 1966 
 Size, small; shape, flattened hemispherical, 
with neither cilia nor infraciliature at any stage 
of the life cycle; tentacles, very short, serving 
for attachment to host ; reproduction by binary 
fission; macronucleus, ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, absent; in marine 
habitats as a parasite on the oral structures of poly-
chaete annelids ; one genus. 
 – Phalacrocleptes Kozloff, 1966