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preceded both by complete dedifferentiation of the 
parental oral structures and by fission; division, 
palintomic, typically within reproductive cysts, 
except in Exocolpoda , which divides while swim-
ming; macronucleus, globular to elongate ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, may be multiple; contractile vacu-
ole, present, may have collecting canals in larger 
species; cytoproct, none (or poorly visible, imper-
manent?); feeding on bacteria and other smaller 
protists, including Colpoda species; in terrestrial 
habitats, widely distributed with one Colpoda
species as an accidental (?) report from a skink 
(lizard); ten genera. 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 403
 – Apocolpoda Foissner, 1993 
 – Bresslaua Kahl, 1931 
 – Colpoda O.F. Müller, 1773 
 – Corticocolpoda Foissner, 1993 
 – Cosmocolpoda Foissner, 1993 
 – Exocolpoda Foissner, Agatha, & Berger, 2002 *
 – Idiocolpoda Foissner, 1993 
 – Krassniggia Foissner, 1987 
 – Kuehneltiella Foissner, 1990 
 – Pseudomaryna Foissner, 2003 *
 Family GRANDORIIDAE Corliss, 1960 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid; free-swimming, but 
temporarily sessile; somatic ciliation, holotrichous, 
with conspicuous bundle of caudal cilia (?) with 
which the ciliate attaches to the substrate ; oral 
cavity, slightly subequatorial, with transversely 
elongated opening ; macronucleus, globular; micro-
nucleus (?); contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct 
(?); bacterivorous (?); in terrestrial habitats, reported 
in soil of sewage-irrigated field; one genus. 
NOTE : This family and genus are in need of 
redescription.
 – Grandoria Corliss, 1960 
 Family GROSSGLOCKNERIIDAE Foissner, 
1980
 (syn. Grossglockneridae ) 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid, elongate; free-swim-
ming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous, but reduced 
in smaller species; oral structures, near anterior 
pole, as a right anterior paroral of monokinetids 
and a single, small, left posterior polykinetid ; 
cytopharynx everted as a small, microtubule-
lined feeding tube used for puncturing fungi 
and yeasts, whose cytoplasm is ingested ; divi-
sion, palintomic in reproductive cyst; macronu-
cleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; 
feeding on the cytoplasm of fungal hyphae and 
solitary yeasts; in terrestrial habitats; five genera 
and two genera incertae sedis . 
NOTE : Foissner (1993a, 1994b) separated this 
family into the Order Grossglockneriida on the 
basis of the novel feeding tube. However, prelimi-
nary molecular genetic evidence suggests that this 
is only an unusual colpodid feeding adaptation 
(Stechmann, Schlegel, & Lynn, 1998). 
 – Fungiphrya Foissner, 1999 
 – Grossglockneria Foissner, 1980 
 – Mykophagophrys Foissner, 1995 
 – Nivaliella Foissner, 1980 
 – Pseudoplatyophrya Foissner, 1980 
Incertae sedis in Family Grossglockneriidae 
 – Pseudoglaucoma Wenzel, 1953 
 – Rigchostoma Vuxanovici, 1963 
 Family HAUSMANNIELLIDAE Foissner, 1987 
 (syn. Kalometopiidae ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, kidney bean-like; 
free-swimming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous, 
with right kineties tending to curve anterior to the 
oral region; oral region, equatorial, may be very 
cavernous, with right oral polykinetid tapering 
at its anterior end as it curves along the anterior 
border of the oral cavity, distinctly longer than 
left oral polykinetid ; division, palintomic within 
reproductive cyst; macronucleus, globular to ellip-
soid, sometimes reniform; micronucleus, may be 
multiple; contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, 
present; feeding on bacteria, fungi, and other pro-
tists, particularly Colpoda species; in terrestrial 
habitats; five genera .
 – Anictostoma Foissner, 1993 (subj. syn. 
Corallocolpoda ) 
 – Avestina Jankowski, 1980 
 – Bresslauides Blatterer & Foissner, 1988 
 – Corallocolpoda Alekperov, 1991 
 – Hausmanniella Foissner, 1984 
 – Kalometopia Bramy, 1962 
 Family MARYNIDAE Poche, 1913 
 Size, small to large; shape, ovoid, with larger 
preoral lobe and smaller postoral lobe ; free-
swimming, but typically sessile, enclosed in 
a tubular or cup-shaped lorica or gelatinous 
sheath ; solitary or colonial; somatic ciliation, 
holotrichous, with leftward spiral, forming highly 
ordered oblique and longitudinal pattern along a 
midventral suture; oral apparatus in posterior 
half of body, opening at base of posterior lobe ; 
right and left oral polykinetids of about equal 
length; fission, palintomic within reproductive 
cyst; macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronu-
cleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; cyto-
404 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
proct, present; bacterivorous; in small, temporary 
freshwater ponds and sometimes terrestrial habi-
tats; four genera. 
 – Ilsiella Foissner, 1987 
 – Maryna Gruber, 1879 
 – Mycterothrix Lauterborn, 1898 
 – Opisthostomatella Corliss, 1960 
Incertae sedis in Order Colpodida 
 – Balantiophorus Schewiakoff, 1889 (subj. syn. 
Cyrtolophosis ) 
 – Dragescozoon Foissner, Agatha, & Berger, 2002 *
 Order Cyrtolophosidida Foissner, 1978 
 (syns. Cyrtolophosida , Cyrtolophosidina , Platyo-
phryida , Platyophryina ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, elongate, ovoid, some-
times laterally flattened; oral region, shallow, apical 
to subapical; paroral as a file of dikinetids on right 
side of oral region; serial left oral polykinetids, 
few to many; micronucleus enclosed within the 
perinuclear space of the macronucleus (with some 
exceptions) ; stomatogenesis, pleurotelokinetal; fis-
sion, may occur in reproductive cyst; in freshwater 
and terrestrial habitats with some marine species; 
four families and one family incertae sedis . 
 Family CYRTOLOPHOSIDIDAE Stokes, 1888 
 (syns. Cyrtolophosidae , Cyrtolophosiidae ) 
 Size, small; shape, narrow-ovoid; free-swimming, 
but some species residing in a transparent gelati-
nous or mucous lorica or tube ; somatic ciliation, 
holotrichous, but can be sparse; oral region in ante-
rior 1/3 of cell; paroral typically in two segments, 
an anterior, conspicuously ciliated segment and a 
more posterior segment with inconspicuous cilia ; 
left oral polykinetids, three to five; stomatogenesis, 
pleurotelokinetal with parental paroral reorganized 
during the process; macronucleus, globular to ellip-
soid; micronucleus, in perinuclear space; contractile 
vacuole, present; cytoproct, may be present; feeding 
on bacteria, microalgae, and smaller protists; in 
freshwater and terrestrial habitats; three genera and 
one genus incertae sedis . 
 – Aristerostoma Kahl, 1926 
 – Cyrtolophosis Stokes, 1885 
 – Pseudocyrtolophosis Foissner, 1980 
Incertae sedis in Family Cyrtolophosididae 
 – Plesiocaryon Foissner, Agatha, & Berger, 2002 *
 Family PLATYOPHRYIDAE de Puytorac, Perez-
Paniagua, & Perez-Silva, 1979 
 (syn. Reticulowoodruffiidae ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, elongate, ovoid; 
free-swimming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous, 
with anterior ends of left somatic kineties some-
times forming several paratene-like rows bordering 
the serial left oral polykinetids; oral region, near 
obliquely truncate anterior end, with paroral as 
an uninterrupted file along the right margin of the 
anterior oral region; serial left oral polykinetids, 
numerous, with adoral zone approximately the 
same length as paroral ; stomatogenesis, pleuro-
telokinetal with parental paroral maintained during 
the process; macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid, 
rarely in two nodules; micronucleus, in perinu-
clear space; contractile vacuole, present; cyto-
proct, present; feeding on bacteria, microalgae, 
other smaller protists, and in larger species, even 
metazoans, like nematode worms; in freshwater 
and terrestrial habitats; five genera and one genus 
incertae sedis . 
 – Cirrophrya Géllert, 1950 
 – Platyophrya Kahl, 1926 
 – Platyophryides Foissner, 1987 
 – Reticulowoodruffia Foissner, 1993 
 – Semiplatyophrya Wilbert

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