Cap 17
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Cap 17


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Size, medium to large; shape, typically elongate, 
contractile; often pigmented; mature forms, sessile 
and sedentary, always residing in a lorica; body, 
especially in neck region in some species, with 
conspicuous pair of \u201cperistomial wings\u201d bearing 
the prominent oral ciliature ; at division, complex 
morphogenesis with vermiform migratory larval 
stage that \u201crecapitulates\u201d a typical heterotrich 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 345
with reduced spiralling of the adoral zone ; macro-
nucleus, variable, as single ellipsoid to multiple and 
moniliform; micronucleus, single to multiple; contrac-
tile vacuole, present at least in freshwater forms; cyto-
proct (?); feeding on bacteria, microalgae, and other 
protists; widely distributed in marine habitats, but a 
few species in freshwater, attached to algae, higher 
aquatic plants, or integument or shells of invertebrates 
(e.g., molluscs, various crustaceans, bryozoa, coelen-
terates); 30 genera including some fossil forms. 
 \u2013 Ampullofolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Ascobius Henneguy, 1884 
 \u2013 Atriofolliculina Hadzi, 1951 [nomen nudum] 
 \u2013 Aulofolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Botticula Dioni, 1972 
 \u2013 Claustrofolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Diafolliculina Hadzi, 1951 [nomen nudum] 
 \u2013 Echinofolliculina Dons, 1934 
 \u2013 Epifolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Eufolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Folliculina Lamarck, 1816 
 \u2013 Folliculinopsis Fauré-Fremiet, 1936 [nomen 
nudum]
 \u2013 Halofolliculina Hadzi, 1951 [nomen nudum] 
 \u2013 Lagotia Wright, 1857 
 \u2013 Latifolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Magnifolliculina Uhlig, 1964 [nomen nudum] 
 \u2013 Metafolliculina Dons, 1924 
 \u2013 Mirofolliculina Dons, 1928 
 \u2013 Pachyfolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Parafolliculina Dons, 1914 
 \u2013 Pebrilla Giard, 1888 
 \u2013 Perifolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Planifolliculina Hadzi, 1951 
 \u2013 Platyfolliculina Hadzi, 1938 
 \u2013 Priscofolliculina Deflandre & Deunff, 1957 (fossil) 
 \u2013 Pseudofolliculina Dons, 1914 
 \u2013 Pseudoparafolliculina Andrews & Nelson, 1942 
 \u2013 Splitofolliculina Hadzi, 1951 [nomen nudum] 
 \u2013 Stentofolliculina Hadzi, 1938 
 \u2013 Valletofolliculina Andrews, 1953 
 Family MARISTENTORIDAE Miao, Simpson, 
Fu, & Lobban, 2005 
 Size, large, majestic when fully extended; shape, 
trumpet-shaped with apical area expanded into a 
bilobed \u201ccap\u201d divided by a ventral indentation, 
very contractile ; free-swimming, but typically tem-
porarily attached to substrate; pigmented, due both 
to blood-red pigmentocysts and to the presence of 
symbiotic zooxanthellae; somatic ciliation, holotri-
chous; oral ciliature of over 300 oral polykinetids, 
spirals around flared-out anterior end, encircling 
an anterior peristomial field with scattered cili-
ate dikinetids, not arranged in kineties ; paroral, 
very reduced; macronucleus, ellipsoid; micronuclei, 
multiple; contractile vacuole, absent; cytoproct, not 
reported; feeding on bacteria, microalgae, and other 
protists; in marine habitats, at least associated with 
coral reefs; one genus. 
 \u2013 Maristentor Lobban, Schefter, Simpson, Pochon, 
Pawlowski, & Foissner, 2002 *
 Family PERITROMIDAE Stein, 1867 
 Size, medium; shape, ellipsoidal, dorsoventrally 
flattened, contractile; free-swimming; somatic cili-
ation primarily on ventral (= right?) surface; single
somatic kinety on slightly convex dorsal (= left?) 
surface; spine-like cilia of dorsal kinetids emerg-
ing from wart-like papillae ; extrusomes, not 
reported; oral region expansive with left serial 
oral polykinetids extending anteriorly from 
equatorial oral cavity along anterior border 
of cell and paroral extending parallel to serial 
oral polykinetids ; macronucleus, typically in two 
lobes; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
present; cytoproct, present; feeding on bacteria, 
microalgae, and other protists; generally in marine 
habitats, including salt marshes; one genus. 
 \u2013 Peritromus Stein, 1863 
 Family SPIROSTOMIDAE Stein, 1867
(syn. Spirostomatidae ) 
 Size, medium to large; shape, often elongate, cylin-
drical and very contractile; some pigmented forms; 
free-swimming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous; extru-
somes, not reported; oral region in anterior half; 
peristomial field, long, narrow, not ciliated; oral 
ciliature sometimes relatively inconspicuous, but 
still with many serial oral polykinetids, extend-
ing 1/3\u20131/2 body length ; paroral may extend almost 
entire length of oral region, paralleling the adoral zone; 
macronucleus, moniliform; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole posterior, frequently large, and 
may have lengthy collecting canal; cytoproct, present; 
346 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
feeding on bacteria, microalgae, and other protists; 
predominantly in freshwater habitats; two genera and 
two genera incertae sedis . 
 \u2013 Gruberia Kahl, 1932 
 \u2013 Spirostomum Ehrenberg, 1834 
Incertae sedis in Family Spirostomidae 
 \u2013 Diplogmus Mansfeld, 1923 
 \u2013 Propygocirrus Mansfeld, 1923 
 Family STENTORIDAE Carus, 1863 
 Size, medium to large, becoming majestic in 
size and movement; shape, trumpet-shaped with 
apical area not bilobed, very contractile ; often 
pigmented due to pigmentocysts with the pig-
ment stentorin and/or with symbiotic zoochlo-
rellae; free-swimming, but typically temporarily 
attached to the substrate, with a few species residing 
in mucilaginous loricae; somatic ciliation, holotri-
chous, with posterior end having thigmotactic cilia 
permitting temporary attachment to substrate; oral 
ciliature spirals nearly 360° around flared-out 
anterior end, encircling an anterior peristomial 
field that is covered by ciliated kinetids arranged 
in ordered kineties; paroral accompanying entire 
length of adoral zone of polykinetids ; macro-
nucleus, ellipsoid to ribbon-like and moniliform; 
micronucleus, one to many; contractile vacuole, 
may be multiple; cytoproct, present; feeding on bac-
teria, microalgae, and other protists, including other 
ciliates; typically in freshwater habitats only; one 
genus and three genera incertae sedis . 
 \u2013 Stentor Oken, 1815 
Incertae sedis in Family Stentoridae 
 \u2013 Heterostentor Song & Wilbert, 2002 *
 \u2013 Parastentor Vuxanovici, 1961 
 \u2013 Stentoropsis Dogiel & Bychowsky, 1934 
 Subphylum INTRAMACRONUCLEATA Lynn, 1996 
 ( Ciliostomatophora p.p ., Homoiotricha p.p ., Homo-
tricha p.p ., Kinetodesmatophora p.p ., Postcilio-
nematophora p.p ., Tubulicorticata + Filicorticata 
+ Epiplasmata + Membranellophora p.p ., Trans-
versonematophora p.p .) 
 Size, small to large; shape, variable, from globular 
to ellipsoid to elongate; free-swimming or sessile; 
cortical alveolar system typically well-developed; 
somatic ciliation, holotrichous, but forms with girdles 
and strips, and even non-ciliated taxa are known; 
parasomal sacs, present; extrusomes as somatic 
mucocysts and trichocysts and oral and somatic 
toxicysts; oral structures, variable, minimally with 
oral dikinetids, either encircling the cytostome or on 
the right side as a paroral, but some forms also with 
several to many oral polykinetids in an adoral zone 
and other forms astomatous or with oralized somatic 
kinetids; stomatogenesis, variable from telokinetal 
to buccokinetal; fission, typically isotomic, rarely 
anisotomic and multiple; macronuclear genome 
typically differentiated by fragmentation of micro-
nuclear chromosomes during anlage development; 
polyploid macronucleus dividing by intramacro-
nuclear microtubules ; micronucleus, present; con-
jugation, typically temporary and isogamontic, but 
some forms showing complete conjugation with ani-
sogamonty; feeding habits, diverse, including several 
major classes and subclasses as obligate symbionts, 
sometimes parasitic; widely distributed in marine, 
freshwater, and terrestrial habitats; nine classes. 
NOTE : Lynn (1996a) suggested that the rapid 
radiation within this subphylum arose from a 
fundamentally different property of ciliate cellular 
organization, perhaps