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shape, cylindrical to bell-shaped, 
narrowing toward oral end; zooid, free-swimming 
with aboral end forward, secondarily (?) stalk-
less but with inactive scopula at the aboral pole 
and a permanently ciliated telotrochal band ; 
oral region, as for subclass, but with a small 
separate group of rigid cilia prominent in one 
genus (i.e., Opisthonecta ) ; macronucleus, band-
form; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
present; cytoproct (?); in freshwater habitats, espe-
cially the plankton; two genera. 
NOTE : Fauré-Fremiet (1950c) argued that 
these genera were probably not phylogeneti-
cally related and suggested that Opisthonecta
derived from a stalked Epistylis -like ancestor while 
Telotrochidium derived from an Opercularia -like 
ancestor. While Telotrochidium has not yet been 
sequenced, Opisthonecta does appear to group 
with an Epistylis clade (e.g., Lynn & Strüder-
Kypke, 2005). 
 – Opisthonecta Fauré-Fremiet, 1906 
 – Telotrochidium Kent, 1881 
 Family ROVINJELLIDAE Matthes, 1972 
 Size, medium; shape, elongate, cylindrical-coni-
cal; zooids in two-membered colonies, sharing a 
stalk that is in two parts – in the lorica, a proxi-
mal part that folds into accordion-like pleats 
on contraction, and a non-contractile, distal 
part outside the lorica that is attached to the 
substrate ; lorica, gaping widely at its upper (= 
oral) end ; oral region as for subclass, with a large, 
slightly protuberant epistomial disk; macronucleus, 
band-shaped; micronucleus (?); contractile vacu-
ole, present; cytoproct (?); in marine and freshwa-
ter habitats on crustaceans ; four genera and one 
genus incertae sedis . 
 – Grainis Jankowski, 1997 
 – Rovinjella Matthes, 1972 
 – Shellositon Jankowski, 1993 
 – Tauriella Naidenova, 1985 
Incertae sedis in Family Rovinjellidae 
 – Delamurea Naidenova, 1978 
 Family SCYPHIDIIDAE Kahl, 1933 
 (syn. Corlissettidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; shape, cylindroid to 
elongate bell-shaped; zooid, solitary, stalkless 
432 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
yet sessile, and adhering to substrata directly 
by scopula, which often forms a flattened disc, 
sometimes extensive and often markedly distinct 
from the rest of the body ; trochal band, temporary 
in telotroch, except for Ambiphrya , which has a 
permanently ciliated trochal band; oral region, as 
for subclass; macronucleus, elongate, sometimes 
band-shaped; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, present; cytoproct (?); in marine and 
freshwater habitats, generally found as epibionts 
on invertebrates (e.g., leeches , marine worms) and 
gills of fishes and molluscs , but one free-living 
planktonic species ( Gonzeella ) forming a large, 
gelatinous pseudocolony; 99 genera and one genus 
incertae sedis . 
 – Ambiphrya Raabe, 1952 
 – Corlissetta Jankowski, 1986 
 – Mantoscyphidia Jankowski, 1980 
 – Myoscyphidia Jankowski, 1985 
 – Paravorticella Kahl, 1933 
 – Riboscyphidia Jankowski, 1980 
 – Scopulata Viljoen & Van As, 1985 (subj. syn. 
Apiosoma ) 
 – Scyphidia Dujardin, 1841 
 – Speleoscyphidia Jankowski, 1980 
Incertae sedis in Family Scyphidiidae 
 – Gonzeella Kufferath, 1953 
 Family TERMITOPHRYIDAE Lom in Corliss, 1979 
 Size, medium to large; shape, inverted cone; 
zooid, solitary; possibly free-swimming; scopula
produces a unique, pad-like disc as an organelle 
of temporary (?) attachment ; oral region, mark-
edly reduced in diameter and sunken into the 
cell body, with a long, helical, deep infundibu-
lum in which oral ciliature makes five helical 
turns ; macronucleus, band-form; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct (?); 
cysts; in terrestrial habitats as endocommen-
sals in the intestine of African termites of the 
Subfamily Apicotermitinae ; one genus 
 – Termitophrya Noirot & Noirot-Timothée, 1959 
 Family USCONOPHRYIDAE Clamp, 1991 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid, flattened; zooids, 
solitary or paired, attached to the substrate by 
the lorica; lorica, hemispherical or urn-shaped, 
with an aperture that lacks a closure appara-
tus ; oral region as for subclass, but with a rigid 
peristomial lip and extensible peristomial disk; 
telotroch forming to right side of parent (when 
viewed from above) ; macronucleus, ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; 
cytoproct (?); in freshwater habitats on the append-
ages and body cuticle of isopod crustaceans; one 
genus.
 – Usconophrys Jankowski, 1985 
Incertae sedis in Family Usconophryidae 
 – Chilenophrys Jankowski, 1986 
 Family VAGINICOLIDAE de Fromentel, 1874 
 (for Vaginiferidae; syn. Cothurniidae ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, conical to cylin-
droid, generally very slender; zooid, contractile, 
attached in lorica by aboral end, either with 
or without stalk ; lorica, attached directly to the 
substrate or by a stalk; oral region as for subclass, 
protrusible well beyond opening of lorica, and 
with a retractable peristomial lip and distinct 
epistomial disk ; fission, isotomic or anisotomic; 
macronucleus, ribbon-like, parallel to long axis 
of body; micronucleus (?); contractile vacuole, 
present; cytoproct (?); in marine and freshwater 
habitats, attached to plants or inanimate substrata 
or as symphorionts; 18 genera, of which one is 
a fossil genus from the Lower Triassic, and one 
genus incertae sedis . 
 – Australana Jankowski, 1986 
 – Baikalotheca Jankowski, 1985 
 – Caulicola Stokes, 1894 (subj. syn. Pyxicola ) 
 – Cothurnia Ehrenberg, 1831 
 – Cothurnopsis Entz, 1884 
 – Cothurniopsis Stokes, 1893 
 – Daurotheca Jankowski, 1986 
 – Dimorphocothurnia Jankowski, 1985 
 – Muscipula Guhl & Guhl, 1993 
 – Pachytrocha Kent, 1882 
 – Parapyxicola Jankowski, 1985 
 – Platycola Kent, 1882 
 – Pseudothuricola Kahl, 1935 
 – Pyxicola Kent, 1882 
 – Rossonophrys Jankowski, 1989 
 – Thuricola Kent, 1881 
 – Triacola Weitschat & Guhl, 1994 (fossil) 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 433
 – Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 
Incertae sedis in Family Vaginicolidae 
 – Cyclodonta Matthes, 1958 
 Family VORTICELLIDAE Ehrenberg, 1838 
 Size, small to medium; shape, flattened cup to 
bell-shaped to elongate cylindroid; zooid, contrac-
tile, with each zooid, even in colonial forms, hav-
ing its own helically twisted contractile myoneme 
(= spasmoneme) that is centred within the stalk 
along its entire length and that compresses into 
a tight helical coil on contraction ; solitary, gre-
garious, or colonial; loricate forms, uncommon; 
oral region as for subclass, but with a retractable 
collarette and slightly protuberant epistomial disk; 
oral ciliature, making one to one-and-one-half turns; 
macronucleus, band-shaped; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; in 
marine, brackish, and freshwater habitats, attached to 
inanimate objects, plants, rotifers , crustaceans , even 
 turtles , and several genera with stalked planktonic 
phases; 17 genera and one genus incertae sedis . 
 – Anthochloe Joseph, 1882 
 – Baikalaster Jankowski, 1986 
 – Baikalonis Jankowski, 1982 
 – Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1831 
 – Cotensita Jankowski, 1982 
 – Epicarchesium Jankowski, 1985 
 – Intranstylum Fauré-Fremiet, 1904 
 – Parazoothamnium Piesik, 1975 
 – Pelagovorticella Jankowski, 1980 
 – Piesika Warren, 1988 
 – Planeticovorticella Clamp & Coats, 2000 
 – Pseudocarchesium Sommer, 1951 [nomen nudum] 
 – Pseudovorticella Foissner & Schiffmann, 1975 
 – Rugaecaulis Lom & de Puytorac, 1994 
 – Ruthiella Schödel, 1983 
 – Spinivorticella Jankowski, 1993 
 – Tucolesca Lom in Corliss, 1979 
 – Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 
Incertae sedis in Family Vorticellidae 
 – Monintranstylum Banina in Jankowski, 1993 
 Family ZOOTHAMNIIDAE Sommer, 1951 
 Size, small to large; shape, bell-shaped to elon-
gate cylindroid; zooid with contractile myoneme 
(= spasmoneme) that compresses on

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