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Adjunctive laser or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to nonsurgical mechanical instrumentation in patients with untreated

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at
er
la
se
 ip
lu
s,
 
Bi
ol
as
e,
 Ir
vi
ne
, C
A
, 
U
SA
)
Fi
br
e 
op
tic
 ti
p 
RF
PT
 
5–
14
 (n
.r.
)
1.
5 
W
, 3
0 
H
z
n.
r.
n.
r.
n.
r.
n.
r.
n.
r.
Te
st
 g
ro
up
: S
RP
 
(h
an
d 
+ 
ul
tr
as
on
ic
) +
 la
se
r
C
on
tr
ol
 g
ro
up
: S
RP
 
(h
an
d 
+ 
ul
tr
as
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ic
)
1 
– 
3 
– 
6
Su
pr
ag
in
gi
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l c
le
an
in
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te
r 
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 3
 a
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 6
 m
on
th
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r.
A
bb
re
vi
at
io
ns
: A
gP
, a
gg
re
ss
iv
e 
pe
rio
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iti
s;
 C
hP
, c
hr
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ic
 p
er
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do
nt
iti
s;
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r,C
r:Y
SG
G
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rb
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m
, c
hr
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ed
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tt
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m
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ca
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 g
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Er
:Y
AG
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op
ed
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tt
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m
 a
lu
m
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iu
m
 g
ar
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G
aA
lA
s,
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lu
m
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iu
m
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al
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m
 a
rs
en
id
e;
 K
TP
, p
ot
as
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um
 ti
ta
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l p
ho
sp
ha
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; n
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um
be
r; 
n.
r.,
 n
ot
 re
po
rt
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; N
d:
YA
G
, n
eo
dy
m
iu
m
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ed
: y
tt
riu
m
 a
lu
m
in
iu
m
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t; 
O
H
I, 
or
al
 h
yg
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 in
st
ru
ct
io
ns
; S
PT
, 
su
pp
or
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e 
pe
rio
do
nt
al
 th
er
ap
y;
 S
RP
, s
ca
lin
g 
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d 
ro
ot
 p
la
ni
ng
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a 1
 p
at
ie
nt
 lo
st
 to
 fo
llo
w
-u
p 
(2
6 
pa
tie
nt
s 
w
er
e 
in
cl
ud
ed
 in
 th
e 
an
al
ys
es
). 
b F
in
al
ly
 a
na
ly
se
d:
 4
05
 s
ite
s 
fo
r t
es
t a
nd
 3
99
 fo
r c
on
tr
ol
 g
ro
up
. 
c F
in
al
ly
 a
na
ly
se
d:
 5
09
 fo
r t
es
t a
nd
 5
79
 fo
r c
on
tr
ol
 g
ro
up
. 
d L
as
er
 a
pp
lic
at
io
n 
on
ce
 a
 w
ee
k 
fo
r e
ac
h 
m
ill
im
et
re
 o
f p
oc
ke
t r
ed
uc
tio
n 
(o
n 
av
er
ag
e 
3 
ap
po
in
tm
en
ts
). 
e S
tu
dy
 h
as
 2
 te
st
 g
ro
up
s 
se
e 
Ta
bl
e 
4.
 
f T
es
t g
ro
up
. 
g C
on
tr
ol
 g
ro
up
. 
TA
B
LE
 2
 
(C
on
tin
ue
d)
186  |     SALVI et AL.
TA
B
LE
 3
 
C
lin
ic
al
 o
ut
co
m
e 
pa
ra
m
et
er
s 
of
 s
tu
di
es
 o
n 
ad
ju
nc
tiv
e 
la
se
r t
he
ra
py
 to
 n
on
-s
ur
gi
ca
l m
ec
ha
ni
ca
l i
ns
tr
um
en
ta
tio
n.
 If
 n
ot
 o
th
er
w
is
e 
in
di
ca
te
d,
 p
ar
am
et
er
s 
ar
e 
pr
es
en
te
d 
as
 
m
ea
ns
 ±
 S
D
Fi
rs
t a
ut
ho
r 
(y
ea
r)
G
ro
up
Ti
m
e 
po
in
t
PP
D
 (m
m
)
PP
D
 c
ha
ng
e 
(m
m
)
C
A
L 
(m
m
)
C
A
L 
ch
an
ge
 (m
m
)
BO
P 
(%
)
BO
P 
ch
an
ge
 (%
)
PI
 (%
)
K
am
m
a 
et
 a
l. 
(2
00
9)
Te
st
Ba
se
lin
e
6.
67
 ±
 1
.2
9
–
7.
07
 ±
 1
.7
1
–
82
.4
–
52
.7
6 
m
on
th
s
3.
87
 ±
 0
.9
2*
–
4.
93
 ±
 1
.6
2*
–
24
.3
–
29
.2
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
e
6.
47
 ±
 1
.3
6
–
7.
07
 ±
 1
.5
8
–
81
.6
–
54
.1
6 
m
on
th
s
4.
13
 ±
 1
.0
6*
–
5.
20
 ±
 1
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6*
–
25
.8
–
32
.6
Ro
tu
nd
o 
et
 a
l. 
(2
01
0)
Te
st
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
1 
± 
1.
1
–
5.
7 
± 
1.
5
–
71
–
63
6 
m
on
th
s
3.
9 
± 
1.
5
1.
2 
± 
1.
6
5.
2 
± 
1.
8
0.
5 
± 
1.
7
53
–
47
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
2 
± 
1.
2
–
6.
1 
± 
1.
6
–
73
–
68
6 
m
on
th
s
4.
3 
± 
1.
7
1.
0 
± 
1.
5
5.
6 
± 
2.
0
0.
5 
± 
1.
8
57
–
48
Ke
lb
au
sk
ie
ne
 
et
 a
l. 
(2
01
1)
Te
st
Ba
se
lin
e
4.
33
 ±
 1
.0
8*
*
–
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 ±
 1
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**
–
79
.0
–
3.
5a
6 
m
on
th
s
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2.
13
 ±
 1
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4*
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2.
1 
± 
1.
26
**
10
.5
–
9.
1a
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
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4.
07
 ±
 0
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9*
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–
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 0
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2*
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–
74
.1
–
3.
7a
6 
m
on
th
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1.
64
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 1
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6*
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–
1.
57
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 1
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1*
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17
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14
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a
El
ta
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d 
O
rb
ak
 
(2
01
2a
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st
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8
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7 
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1
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1.
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m
on
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6
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0.
8 
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C
on
tr
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5.
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6 
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2
–
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–
6.
5 
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st
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1.
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D
ils
iz
 e
t a
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(2
01
3)
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st
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5.
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1
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1.
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8e
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4e
C
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6
–
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50
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 0
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2
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1e
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6e
Eu
ze
bi
o 
A
lv
es
 
et
 a
l. 
(2
01
3)
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st
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se
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6.
13
 ±
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5
–
6.
91
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4
–
97
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 ±
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6.
6
–
1.
25
 ±
 0
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9c
6 
m
on
th
s
3.
63
 ±
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9
2.
56
 ±
 1
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9
5.
33
 ±
 2
.1
3
1.
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 ±
 1
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2
40
.1
 ±
 4
9.
3
57
.1
0.
66
 ±
 0
.8
8c
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
69
 ±
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.9
5
–
6.
50
 ±
 1
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4
–
94
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 ±
 2
3.
2
–
1.
47
 ±
 0
.9
0c
6 
m
on
th
s
2.
93
 ±
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3
2.
76
 ±
 1
.1
3
4.
30
 ±
 2
.0
8
2.
10
 ±
 1
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4
33
.6
 ±
 4
7.
2
60
.8
0.
60
 ±
 0
.7
7c
(C
on
tin
ue
s)
     |  187SALVI et AL.
Fi
rs
t a
ut
ho
r 
(y
ea
r)
G
ro
up
Ti
m
e 
po
in
t
PP
D
 (m
m
)
PP
D
 c
ha
ng
e 
(m
m
)
C
A
L 
(m
m
)
C
A
L 
ch
an
ge
 (m
m
)
BO
P 
(%
)
BO
P 
ch
an
ge
 (%
)
PI
 (%
)
D
er
ec
i e
t a
l. 
(2
01
6)
Te
st
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
3 
± 
1.
8
–
2.
9 
± 
0.
6
–
75
.1
 ±
 7
.2
–
2.
4 
± 
0.
5e
6 
m
on
th
s
1.
9 
± 
0.
7
–
1.
8 
± 
0.
5
–
37
.8
 ±
 7
.7
*
–
1.
5 
± 
0.
5e
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
3 
± 
1.
8
–
2.
9 
± 
0.
4
–
77
.7
 ±
 7
.4
–
2.
5 
± 
0.
5e
6 
m
on
th
s
2.
1 
± 
0.
6
–
1.
9 
± 
0.
4
–
41
.6
 ±
 8
.6
*
–
1.
5 
± 
0.
5e
H
at
ip
og
lu
 e
t 
al
. (
20
17
)
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st
Ba
se
lin
e
4.
05
 ±
 0
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4
–
3.
03
 ±
 0
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5
–
75
.9
 ±
 6
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9
–
1.
88
 ±
 0
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7
6 
m
on
th
s
1.
88
 ±
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5
–
1.
75
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8
–
21
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 ±
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.1
6*
–
1.
25
 ±
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5*
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
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4.
00
 ±
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3
–
2.
74
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9
–
74
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9
–
1.
86
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8
6 
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on
th
s
1.
95
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1
–
1.
81
 ±
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0
–
31
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 ±
 7
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3*
–
1.
41
 ±
 0
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6
M
at
ar
es
e 
et
 
al
. (
20
17
)
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st
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
25
 ±
 0
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6
–
5.
36
 ±
 0
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9
–
75
.2
6 
± 
3.
6
–
28
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1 
± 
5.
12
6 
m
on
th
s
2.
24
 ±
 0
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5
 
3.
19
 ±
 0
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2
–
22
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9 
± 
4.
2
–
24
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5 
± 
3.
36
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
e
5.
18
 ±
 0
.5
7
–
4.
88
 ±
 0
.5
5
–
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2 
± 
2.
2
–
28
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4 
± 
5.
23
6 
m
on
th
s
2.
68
 ±
 0
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9
–
3.
11
 ±
 0
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5
–
24
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7 
± 
3.
2
–
25
.0
4 
± 
3.
69
Ü
st
ün
 e
t a
l. 
(2
01
8)
Te
st
Ba
se
lin
e
3.
88
 ±
 0
.5
0
–
2.
69
 ±
 0
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7
–
74
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5 
± 
7.
59
–
1.
72
 ±
 0
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2
6 
m
on
th
s
1.
83
 ±
 0
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0
–
1.
76
 ±
 0
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6
–
26
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5 
± 
7.
39
–
1.
32
 ±
 0
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6
C
on
tr
ol
Ba
se
lin
e
3.
97
 ±
 0
.7
2
–
2.
88
 ±
 0
.5
8
–
77
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0 
± 
7.
64
–
1.
78
 ±
 0
.3
5
6 
m
on
th
s
2.
03
 ±
 0
.7
3
–
1.
76
 ±
 0
.5
7
–
32
.7
0 
± 
7.
55
–
1.
21
 ±
 0
.1
5
A
bb
re
vi
at
io
ns
: B
O
P,
 b
le
ed
in
g 
on
 p
ro
bi
ng
; C
A
L,
 c
lin
ic
al
 a
tt
ac
hm
en
t l
os
s;
 P
I, 
pl
aq
ue
 in
de
x;
 P
PD
, p
oc
ke
t p
ro
bi
ng
 d
ep
th
.
a P
er
ce
nt
ag
e 
of
 te
et
h 
pr
es
en
tin
g 
vi
si
bl
e 
pl
aq
ue
. 
b S
m
ok
er
s.
 
c A
cc
or
di
ng
 to
 S
iln
es
s 
an
d 
Lö
e 
(1
96
4)
. 
d N
on
-s
m
ok
er
s.
 
e A
cc
or
di
ng
 to
 L
öe
 (1
96
7)
. 
*p
 <
 .0
5;
 
**
p 
< 
.0
01
. 
TA
B
LE
 3
 
(C
on
tin
ue
d)
188  |     SALVI et AL.
TA
B
LE
 4
 
C
ha
ra
ct
er
is
tic
s 
of
 s
tu
di
es
 o
n 
ad
ju
nc
tiv
e 
aP
D
T 
to

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