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be achieved by proper
designing of turbulence suppressing pad
which will rebound incoming velocity
vectors on to itself resulting velocity vector
cancellation.

7

Fig 9. Transition Slabs assesses by drilling

Graph 3. Total Oxygen ppm Movement During CastingGraph 2. Total Oxygen ppm Variation During Ladle
Change Overs

Table 8. Class 1 & 2 Distribution at specific sulphur ranges

Striker Pad &

2 Dams

(Conventional

System)

Proposed

TURBOSTOP

System

1050

1200

1250

22 t

24 t

22 t

1.19

1.00

1.18

Gr A & Gr A Cu

AP15L & T55 (HF)

E-38 & Gr A

Cu

C

Mn

Si

V

Nb

0.007 - 0.25

0.13 - 0.20

0.87 - 1.42

0.02 - 0.35

0.002 - 0.10

0.023 - 0.002

950

1400

1300

20 t

18 t

15 t

1.30

1.10

0.91

EDD & IF

Gr1 & SAE 1021

GrA Cu & Ap 15L

Ti

C

Mn

Cu

V

0.001 - 0.058

0.06 - 0.18

0.3 - 0.66

0.24 - 0.02

Flow Modifier
Set-up

Section
(mm)

Tundish Wt.
At change

Over

Speed Grades Mixed Element
Analysed

Change in
Element

<=0.01

>=0.011 - <=0.015

>=0.016

74.36

42.37

3.85

87.87

57.61

24.62

Class 1

Normal T/D (%) Total TURBOSTOP (%)
Sulphur Range

<=0.01

>=0.011 - <=0.015

>=0.016

25.21

54.83

80.77

10.93

38.77

58.46

Class 2

Normal T/D (%) Total TURBOSTOP (%)
Sulphur Range

25

20

10

15

5

0
TURBOSTOP System Striker Pad & 2 Dams

Flow Modifier Set-up

3.33

19.02

To
ta

l
O

xy
g

en
 p

p
m

80

To
ta

l O
xy

g
en

 p
p

m

Time (Min)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

TURBOSTOP Trial 1 TURBOSTOP Trial 2 Striker Pad & 2 Dams

Ladle Change Over
22.45 Tons T/d Wt

Ladle Change Over
18.27 Tons T/d Wt

Metal Level Variation

Ladle Change Over
16.46 Tons T/d Wt

Ladle Change Over
19.26 Tons T/d Wt

Ladle Change Over
19.59 Tons T/d Wt

8. Asai, S., and Szekely, J. : Ironmaking and
Steelmaking, Vol. 2, No. 3., (1975), pp.
205-213

9. Salcudden, M. , and Guthrie, R.I.L. :
Met. Trans. B., Vol. 10B, (1979), pp
423-428

10. Skoglund, V. J. : "Similitude – Theory
and Applications" , International
Textbooks, New York, (1967)

11. Gukman, A. A. : "Introduction to the
Theory of Similarity ," Academic Press,
New York (1965)

12. Parker, J. , Boggs, J., and Blick, E. :
"Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and
Heat Transfer," Addison-Wesely, New
York, (1969)

13. Szekely, J. : "Fluid Flow Phenomena in
Metals Processing ," Academic Press,
New York, (1979)

14. Robertson, A. D., and Sheridan, A.T. :
J. Iron Steel Inst., Vol. 208, (1970), pp.
625-632

15. Advent Engg : Fluid Flow, Chapter Two

16. O. Levenspiel : Chemical Reaction
Engineering, John Wiley & Sons

at a particular design of the turbulence
suppressing tundish impact pads to yield
optimium results e.g for Plant-A a dam
with holes when used along with
TURBOSTOP gave the best results where as
in case of Plant-B it was only TURBOSTOP
which gave the best flow characteristics,
apart from the fact that both designs of
TURBOSTOP arrived are different from each
other.

.Properly designed tundish flow modifiers
working on the principle of dissipation of
incoming velocity vectors go a long way in
improving the flow characteristics of steel
in the tundish and yielding substantial
benefits both in terms on quality and
productivity.

9. Reference

1. Y. Sahai and Toshihiko EM1 : Melt Flow
Characterization in Continuous Casting
Tundish, ISIJ International, Vol. 36
(1996), No.6

2. M.M. Collur, D.B. Love and B.V. Patil :
Use of flow modifiers to improve
performance of a tundish, ISS
Steelmaking Conference, April 1997

3. Michael L. Lowry and Y. Sahai :
Investigation of steel flow in a
continuous casting tundish with
multiple baffles using mathematical
models and tracer studies, 1989
Steelmaking Conference Proceedings,
Pg 71-79

4. Paul Rasmussen : Improvement of Steel
Cleanliness at Dofasco’s #2 Melt Shop

5. Paul Ramussen : Mixed Grade casting
with Turbostop impact pads at
DOFASCO, 79th Steelmaking
Conference, Pittsburg,USA, 1996

6. Mizikar, E. A.: Trans. Met. Soc. AIME,
Vol. 239, (1967), p. 1747

7. Szekely, J., and Stanek, V.: Met. Trans.
B. , Vol. 10B, (1979), p. 119

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