Field Scanning Methods of particle size measurement
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Field Scanning Methods of particle size measurement

DisciplinaProcessamento de Minerais I211 materiais2.062 seguidores
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0.300 and 0.311 |Lim respectively. These compare 
well with typical DuPont values, obtained with the Brookhaven x-ray 
centrifuge, of 0.308 |Lim. 
Dukhin and Goetz [253] found a non-linear attenuation spectra for 
rutile titanium dioxide dispersions in the volume concentration range \% 
to 42% and developed a theory to account for this. Dukhin et al. [254] 
state that viscous losses are dominant in high density contrast dispersions 
e.g. rutile whereas thermal losses are dominant in low-density contrast 
dispersions e.g. latices. A report of two years experience of operating this 
instrument was reported by Hinze [255]. 
A personal computer (PC) controls the measuring arrangement. The 
evaluation algorithm in the PC calculates the ring intensity values of the 
percentage of certain particle size classes by comparison between 
measured values and predetermined theoretical values. The intensity 
values are converted into a size distribution by an iteration process. 
Ultrasonic measurement has also been used to determine the particle size 
distribution in emulsions down to 20 nm in size. The attenuation was 
measured in the frequency range 100 kHz to 185 MHz with computer 
Field scanning methods 583 
controlled small volume cylindrical resonators and computer assisted VHF 
and UHF pulse send-receive apparatus. Concentrated (25% w/v) aqueous 
emulsions of F-dimethyladamantane-trimethyl-bicyclononane, among 
others, were studied as well as perfluorochemical emulsions [256]. For a 
review of ultrasonic particle sizing readers are referred to a paper by 
Riebel and co-workers [257]. A comparison with x-ray sedimentation 
showed good agreement for nominal 1 |Lim silica [258]. In a comparison 
between the Acoustosizer and the AcoustoPhor it was found that both 
instruments were capable of zeta potential measurement. Good agreement 
was found between the techniques for particle size measurement and also 
between measurements made with diluted and concentrated suspensions. 
This was expected for monodisperse spherical particles but excellent 
agreement was also found with non-spherical particles and broader 
distributions [259]. The potential of ultrasonic spectroscopy for in situ 
measurement of a crystallization process has also been examined [260]. 
Babick [261] compare sound spectroscopic determination of 
particle size distributions of sub-micron emulsions with dynamic light 
scattering and laser diffraction using olive oil in water droplet suspensions 
at volume concentrations from 1% to 60%. 
An experimental method has been developed to measure the intrinsic 
attenuation spectra for polystyrene latex using the Malvern Ultrasizer. 
Acoiwtic Impedance 
Acoustic Impedance 
Measurement Rod r \u2014 \u2022 
To Signal 
l^ rf)Cttsanllg 
Signal From 
Gated Ampl i f ier 
I ESA Measurement 
Acoustic Delay Rod h 
To Signal 
Fig. 10.17 Matec AcoustoSizer Measurement cell schematic 
584 Powder sampling andparticle size determination 
10.12 Matec Acoustosizer (ACS) 
Matec [263,264] in collaboration with the University of Sydney introduced 
the AcoustosizerTM ESA-8000, in which the sound waves are generated by 
the particles themselves as they are exposed to a high voltage alternating 
electric field. When an alternating electric field is applied across a sample, 
the double boundary layer surrounding each particle is distorted, so that the 
particles are displaced relative to the liquid. This motion represents a 
pressure wave, which is detected by ultrasonic transducers. The amplitude 
of the wave depends on surface potential, the electrical double layer 
around the particles and particle size. The phenomenon is called the ESA 
effect, an acronym for electro-acoustic size analyzer, and yields the 
average particle size (0.1 to 10 pm), breadth of distribution and zeta 
potential at volume concentrations from 1% to 40%. ACS measurements 
provide a means of investigating moderately concentrated suspensions 
directly without changing the surface equilibria and hence the state of 
agglomeration. The measurement cell contains about 400 ml of suspension 
and two electrodes that are used to apply the electric field to the sample. 
Behind the electrodes there are two glass rods that serve to guide the sound 
waves to the transducers (Figure 10.17). 
When comparing results with other methods it is often necessary to 
dilute the suspensions without changing their state of agglomeration. 
Despite this, under electrokinetically stable conditions, excellent 
agreement was found in a comparison with the Mastersizer S, the Ultra 
Fine Particle Analyzer, the Sedigraph 5000D and scanning electron 
microscopy [265]. It was stressed however that sample preparation 
procedure was important. 
The original Acoustosizer used a single frequency whereas a later 
development has a range of 13 frequencies between 0.3 and 13 MHz. This 
allows the measurement of the dynamic mobility spectrum and the 
determination of the zeta potential and particle size. In order to invert the 
mobility spectrum into a size distribution a log-normal distribution of 
particle size is assumed. A comparison with photon correlation 
spectroscopy for determining particle size and laser Doppler anemometry 
for particle charge confirmed the results using ACS [266]. These and 
additional sedimentation measurements confirmed that changes in particle 
size and zeta potential due to dilution effects are likely to occur in aqueous 
and non-stabilized systems. 
Field scanning methods 585 
10.13 Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectrometry 
For liquids, the velocity of ultrasound depends on the compressibility and 
density of the liquid. For suspensions, the velocity depends also on the 
drag of particles in the liquid under the influence of the ultrasonic wave. 
At low frequencies, small particles tend to move in phase with the liquid 
and the ultrasonic velocity may differ widely from that in the pure liquid. 
As particle size and ultrasonic frequency increases, the particles tend to lag 
more and more behind the movement of the liquid and the ultrasonic 
velocity approaches that of the suspension acting as a uniform fluid. There 
is a transition frequency range between complete entrainment and no 
entrainment of the particles that can be used to obtain particle size 
information. The hydrodynamic model of Marker and Temple [267 ] can 
be used to calculate ultrasonic velocity. This model takes into account the 
effects of fluid viscosity, of concentration, density and elastic modulus of 
both particles and fluid and can predict ultrasonic velocities accurately for 
volume fractions between 5% and 20%. Ultrasonic velocity measurements 
in the 50 kHz to 50 MHz can be used to determine particle size 
distributions in the range of about 0.1 to 30 |Lim. 
In a comparison between ultrasonic velocity and attenuation 
measurements Harkins et. al [268] reported excellent agreement between 
predicted and measured values for the former and discrepancies for the 
CSIRO Minerals has developed a particle size analyzer (UltraPS) based 
on ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectrometry for particle size 
determination [269]. A gamma-ray transmission gauge corrects for 
variations in the density of the slurry. UltraPS is applicable to the 
measurement of particles in the size range 0.1 to 1000 |iim in highly 
concentrated slurries without dilution. The method involves making 
measurements of the transit time (and hence velocity) and amplitude 
(attenuation) of pulsed multiple frequency ultrasonic waves that have 
passed through a concentrated slurry. From the measured ultrasonic 
velocity and attenuation particle size can be inferred either by using 
mathematical inversion techniques to provide a full size distribution or by 
correlation of the data with particle size cut points determined by 
laboratory analyses to provide a calibration equation. 
A resonant technique has been