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ground rules for cartography. What other basic elements of a Mac. There are three vital, non negotiable elements of a map. Apart from the data, these are a north arrow or compass to indicate map orientation, a scale bow and a legend in most cases, and that also needs a title. If the map is a standalone sheet for caption, if the map is in a report, thesis or paper, if it's not immediately obvious some indication of who made the Met who were they working for. For example, an Ecologist, Geoscientist and urban planners have different priorities. Each would include or exclude different things in a map. In the geosciences, we usually add a coordinate grade, or at least a border, to indicate where the site is located. We also need to acknowledge the data sources who collected or produced the data. There are a few things we should definitely avoid doing toe a map, such as stretching it laterally or vertically. This means the scale bar is no longer accurate in both X and Y directions. One should also avoid using the wrong projection for the geographic region you're in, because again this distorts the data. Lastly, avoid using scale text, for example, 1 to 10,000. Unless you're printing a map with exactly the dimensions specified, any re sizing will mean your scale. Text is no longer accurate. Use a scale bar instead as this will be resized with the image.