EXP_0007
15 pág.

EXP_0007


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Balance sheets and Profit and Loss statements, required by law, are created at company code level. 
You can set up several company codes in one client in order to manage various separate legal entities simultaneously, each with their own balanced set of financial books. 
You can use a special Customizing function to copy a company code. This copies the company code specifications to your new company code. 
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A plant can be one of the following types of locations:
Central delivery warehouse
Regional sales office
Manufacturing facility
Corporate headquarters
Maintenance plant
When creating a new plant, you can use the plant copying function. When you use this function, the system processes the entry in the plant table and in all dependent Customizing and system tables in which the plant is included as a key.
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The client is uniquely defined in the system by a three-digit alphanumeric key. 
A unique four-digit alphanumeric key in the client defines the organizational levels company code and plant. A unique four-digit alphanumeric key in the plant uniquely defines the storage location.
Organizational structures are assigned to each other. For example, several plants may be assigned to one company code. However, a plant can be assigned to one company code only in the R/3 System.
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The purchasing organization is responsible for the company's purchasing requirements.
You can incorporate purchasing into the company structure by assigning the purchasing organization to company codes and plants. This means that you can determine whether purchasing is organized centrally or decentrally in your company. You can have a combination of centralized and decentralized purchasing organizations.
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In plant-specific procurement, a purchasing organization is responsible for procuring materials for only one plant.
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You can set up a cross-plant purchasing organization for each company code. This purchasing organization procures material and services for all plants belonging to the company code. 
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If you want to organize purchasing on a cross-company-code basis, you cannot assign a company code to the purchasing organization in Customizing. When you create a purchase order, for example, the system asks you to enter the company code for which you want to procure the material.
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The valuation area is the organizational level at which material is valuated. Plant and company code are two possible valuation areas in the R/3 System.
When stock is valuated at plant level, you can valuate a material in different plants at different prices.
When you valuate stock at company code level, the valuation price of a material is the same in all of a company's plants (that is, in a company code).
SAP recommends that you valuate material at plant level. Valuation at plant level is mandatory if you want to use either of the Production Planning or Product Cost Accounting components, or if your system is a Retail system. 
Caution: Defining the valuation level in Customizing is a fundamental setting, and is very difficult to reverse.
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