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Recovery, Recycle And Reuse Of Industrial Wastes

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RECOVERY, RECYCLE
AND REUSE OF
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
By Kenneth E. Noll, Ph.D., Charles N. Haas, Ph.D.,
Carol Schmidt, Prasad Kodukula
Pritzker Department of Environmental Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
MANAGEMENT SERIES
James W. Patterson, Executive Editor
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PREFACE
This volume, Recovery Recycle and Reuse of
Industrial Waste, is directed to an audience
including industrial and environmental engineers,
and managers. It is designed to explain the under-
lying concepts, advantages and, in certain instan-
ces, disadvantages of recovery, recycle and reuse;
to provide examples of existing applications of
recovery technologies; and to identify and evaluate
applications of a broad spectrum of existing and
potential recovery technologies. Of particular
value for the technologist is the organizational
format of the technologies discussed, as well as
the information on potential applications and,
where they exist, current technical limitations on
those applications. Managers will benefit from the
non-technical overviews provided, plus the discus-
sions of economic implications of recovery, recycle
and reuse.
Review of this work by the USEPA does not
necessarily indicate approval of its content.
Special appreciation is expressed to Mr. William A.
Cawley, Deputy Director, USEPA Industrial Environ-
mental Research Laboratory, and Chairman of the
IWERC Policy Board.
James W. Patterson, Ph.D.
Series Executive Editor and
Director of
The Industrial Waste Elimination
Research Center
iii
SERIES PREFACE
The philosophy of industrial waste management
has changed rapidly in recent years, due to regula-
tory and economic incentives resulting from in-
creasing restrictions on air, water and hazardous
wastes pollution, and from escalating costs of
pollution abatement. Traditional methods of indus-
trial pollution control often ignore alternative
management strategies with significant economic and
environmental benefits. Specifically, opportuni-
ties for source reduction, by-product recovery, and
recycle and recovery for reuse have historically
received scant attention. Today, industry is in-
creasingly considering such alternative approaches,
and finding many opportunities for their cost ef-
fective implementation.
The Industrial Waste Elimination Research
Center (IWERC) is a consortium of Illinois
Institute of Technology and the University of Notre
Dame, established under the auspices of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Office of
Exploratory Research. It operates under the super-
vision of a Policy Board, and with advice from its
Scientific Advisory Committee and Industry Advisory
Council. IWERC has the mission to identify manage-
ment strategies, and to perform technology evalua-
tion, research, and development on innovative al-
ternative technologies for industrial waste manage-
ment. As part of its program, the Center commis-
sioned comprehensive studies in three areas:
1. Recovery, recycle and reuse of
industrial pollutants;
2. Management of industrial pollutants by
anaerobic processes; and
3. Process modifications for pollution
source reduction in chemical processing
industries.
iv
These studies have yielded state-of-the-art infor-
mation on opportunities for applications of alter-
native strategies for industrial waste management.
In view of the current widespread and growing in-
terest in such alternative approaches, the results
of these studies are being made available, as part
of this Industrial Waste Management Series.
James W. Patterson, Ph.D.
v
1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
CONTENTS
1
Introduction ••••••••
Objectives •••••••••.•
Organization of the Book ••
Waste Classification for Recycle, Recovery
and Reuse •••••.•.••••
Methodology •••••••
Summary and Conclusion ••
1
2
2
4
6
13
2. INDUSTRIAL TREATMENT OF WASTE FOR
RECOVERY, RECYCLE OR REUSE.
Introduction ••••••••
Industrial Pollution Recovery
Industrial Wastewater Recycle
. . . 23
23
23
31
3. RESOURCE RECOVERY FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE • 37
Introduction. • • • . • • . • • • • • •• 37
Resource Recovery •• • • • • • • • • •• 39
Unit Processes Used In Resource Recovery. 41
Example Resource Recovery Options •••• 41
Energy Recovery • • • • • • • • • • • •• 54
Facilitation of Recovery • • • • • • • •• 56
Conclusions ••••••••••••••• 63
4. DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY FOR RECOVERY,
RECYCLE, OR REUSE ••••••• •••
Introduction ••••
Developing Technologies
5. SORPTION.
Introduction.
Absorption.
Adsorption for Aqueous Systems.
Adsorption of Gases ••••••
vi
75
75
75
83
83
83
89
99
6. MOLECULAR SEPARATION
Introduct ion •
Organic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds
7. PHASE TRANSITION.
Introduction •
Condensation •
Distillation.
Evaporation
Refrigeration
8. CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS ••
Introduction •
Cementation
Precipitation
Catalytic Hydrogenation
Chemical Reduction •
9. PHYSICAL DISPERSION AND SEPARATION.
Introduction •
Filtration of Liquids
Filtration of Gases
Flotation
Liquid-Liquid Extraction •
vii
119
119
119
124
137
137
138
141
144
147
153
153
153
156
159
163
171
171
171
175
181
183
CHAPTER 1
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
INTRODUCTION
Increased emphasis has been placed on studies
of the chemistry, biological effects, treatment,
fate, and control of industrial by-product pollu-
tants. Discovery of the presence of such materials
at high concentrations coupled with the recognition
of their environmental impacts and potential health
hazards has led to major legislative efforts which
would limit their release into the environment. In
addition, there is an increased interest to ensure
the continued viability of domestic minerals (which
constitute most of the raw materials for various
industrial operations), minerals economy, and the
maintenance of an adequate mineral base. The en-
vironmental

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