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SAP SD 
TUTORIAL
 Web URL
 http://www.techhairball.com/concepts/SAP_S
D_Tutorials.htm
1
Master Data in Sales and Distribution 
Purpose
Sales processing is based on the following basic structures:
• Every company is structured in a certain way. In order to work with the SAP System your 
company structure has to be represented in the system. This is done with the help of 
various organizational structures.
• In sales and distribution, products are sold or sent to business partners or services are 
performed for them. Data about the products and services as well as about the business 
partners is the basis for sales processing. Sales processing with the SAP System requires 
that the master data has been stored in the system.
In addition to sales and distribution, other departments of the company such as accounting 
or materials management access the master data. The material master data is stored in a 
specific structure in order to allow access from these different views.
• The processing of business transactions in sales and distribution is based on the master 
data. In the SAP System, business transaction are stored in the form of documents. These 
sales and distribution documents are structured according to certain criteria so that all 
necessary information in the document is stored in a systematic way.
 
Pricing and Conditions 
Purpose
The term pricing is used broadly to describe the calculation of prices (for external use by 
customers or vendors) and costs (for internal purposes, such as cost accounting). Conditions 
represent a set of circumstances that apply when a price is calculated. For example, a particular 
customer orders a certain quantity of a particular product on a certain day. The variable factors 
here - the customer, the product, the order quantity, the date - determine the final price the 
customer gets. The information about each of these factors can be stored in the system as 
master data. This master data is stored in the form of condition records.
The Condition Technique in Pricing
The condition technique refers to the method by which the system determines prices from 
information stored in condition records. In Sales and Distribution, the various elements used in 
the condition technique are set up and controlled in Customizing. During sales order processing, 
the system uses the condition technique to determine a variety of important pricing information. 
For example, the system automatically determines which gross price the customer should be 
charged and which discounts and surcharges are relevant given the conditions that apply.
Example of Pricing in the Sales Order
The following figure shows how the condition technique works in the background to produce the 
pricing information. The diagram shows how the various elements in the condition technique work 
together.
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1. The system determines the pricing procedure according to information defined in the 
sales document type and the customer master record. 
2. The pricing procedure defines the valid condition types and the sequence in which they 
appear in the sales order. In the example, the system takes the first condition type 
(PR00) in the pricing procedure and begins the search for a valid condition record. 
3. Each condition type in the pricing procedure can have an access sequence assigned to 
it. In this case, the system uses access sequence PR00. The system checks the 
accesses until it finds a valid condition record. (Although you cannot see this in the 
diagram, each access specifies a particular condition table. The table provides the key 
with which the system searches for records). 
4. In the example, the first access (searching for a customer-specific material price) is 
unsuccessful. The system moves on to the next access and finds a valid record. 
5. The system determines the price according to information stored in the condition record. 
If a pricing scale exists, the system calculates the appropriate price. In the example, the 
sales order item is for 120 pieces of the material. Using the scale price that applies to 
quantities from 100 pieces and more, the system determines a price of USD 99 per 
piece.
The system repeats this process for each condition type in the pricing procedure determines a 
final price.
For further information on the condition technique, see Introduction to the Condition 
Technique
Commodity Pricing 
Purpose
You can use this component if you agree on complex pricing rules rather than fixed prices 
as part of your sales negotiations and these rules influence the product price as part of the 
system-aided sales process. 
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Implementation Considerations
Complex pricing rules play an important role when, for example, you sell commodities 
(raw materials traded on the stock market).
To perform commodity pricing, you need to connect a CRM system to your system 
landscape.
Integration
The function requires a functioning Sales and Distribution (SD) component with 
pricing activated. The SD component must be connected to a CRM Sales component in 
the CRM system.
Features
For more information, see Integration of Commodity Pricing in SD Sales Documents and 
Price Quotation.
Constraints
This component does not support the following document types in the ERP system:
• Request for quotation
• Quotation
• Sales contract
Corresponding document types are available in the CRM system.
This component does not support sales orders that you create in the ERP system with 
transactions or BAPIs. You must create sales orders in the CRM system; these are then 
automatically replicated in the ERP system. 
 
 Availability Check and Requirements in Sales and 
Distribution Processing 
Availability Check in Sales and Distribution Processing
Requirements in Sales and Distribution Processing
Availability Check in Shipping
Availability Check against Product Allocation
Available-to-Promise on the Internet
 
About the Availability Check in Sales and 
Distribution Processing 
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When you enter a sales order, you can only confirm the delivery of the goods for the required 
delivery date if the goods are available for all the necessary processing activities which take place 
before delivery:
• The shipping department must ensure that freight forwarding or another shipping 
company is advised early enough so that sufficient time remains for packing and loading 
to be carried out. An availability check can be carried out on the deadline date for 
availability for the goods.
• The procurement department must ensure that the production and purchasing 
departments are advised of inadequate stock quantities so that goods can either be 
produced punctually or ordered. Sales transfers the information on materials ordered as 
requirements to material requirements planning. Requirements are planned outward 
movements of stock. The transfer of requirements informs production that goods must be 
produced, or advises purchasing that purchase requisitions have been created for which 
purchase orders must be created and sent to the suppliers. An availability check can only 
be carried out if these requirements are transferred.
 
Working with the Availability Check in Sales and 
Distribution Processing 
How the availability check is carried out is influenced by various factors. Among other things, 
these factors also determine the scope of the check. The scope of the check can be defined 
differently in the sales documents and in the deliveries. You can also specify whether the 
availability check takes replenishment lead time into account.
For further information on working with the availability check, see
Types of Availability Check in Sales and Distribution Processing
Controlling

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