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(fossil) 
 – Vautrinella Cuvillier & Sacal, 1963 (fossil) 
 – Yvonniellina Tappan & Loeblich, 1968 (fossil) 
Incertae sedis in Family Codonellidae 
 – Bacculinella Konenkova, 2000 (fossil) 
 – Biconvexellina Konenkova, 1999 (fossil) 
 – Bicornella Bugrova, 2003 * (fossil) [junior hom-
onym of ostracoda] 
 – Borzaiella Makarieva, 1982 (fossil) 
 – Borziella Pop, 1987 (fossil) 
 – Carpathella Pop, 1998 (fossil) 
 – Cubanites Aescht, 2001 (fossil) 
 – Cylindriconella Aescht, 2001 (fossil) 
 – Daciella Pop, 1998 (fossil) 
 – Dobeniella Pop, 1997 (fossil) 
 – Foliacella Makarieva, 1979 (fossil) 
 – Longicollaria Pop, 1997 (fossil) 
 – Popiella Rehakova, 2002 * (fossil) 
 – Rossielella Aescht, 2001 (fossil) 
 – Scalpratella Makarieva, 1979 (fossil) 
 – Tianella Bugrova, 2003 * (fossil) 
 Family CODONELLOPSIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 (syns. Calpionellidae p.p ., Calpionellopsidae , 
 Colomiellidae , Semichitinoidellidae ) 
 Size, small to large; lorica, top-shaped with abo-
ral end rounded to apiculate; lorica collar, hyaline, 
cylindrical, delicate but sometimes ridged ; lorica 
wall, thick, but wall of bowl thicker than collar and 
agglomerated with mineral particles; in marine 
habitats, neritic and eupelagic forms; many fossil 
as well as extant forms; 12 genera and 12 fossil 
genera incertae sedis . 
 – Calpionella Lorenz, 1902 (fossil) 
 – Calpionellites Colom, 1948 (fossil) 
 – Calpionellopsella Trejo, 1975 (fossil) 
 – Calpionellopsis Colom, 1948 (fossil) (subj. syn. 
Remaniella ) 
 – Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Colomiella Bonet, 1956 (fossil) 
 – Deflandronella Trejo, 1975 (fossil) 
 – Laackmanniella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Luminella Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 
 – Praecalpionellopsis Borza, 1971 (fossil) 
 – Stenosemella Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Stenosemellopsis Colom, 1948 (fossil) 
Incertae sedis in Family Codonellopsidae 
 – Baranella Nagy, 1989 (fossil) 
 – Borzaites Aescht, 2001 (fossil) 
 – Calpionelloides Colom, 1948 (fossil) 
 – Calpionellopsites Nagy, 1986 (fossil) 
 – Crassicalpionella Nagy, 1989 (fossil) 
 – Furssenkoiella Makarieva, 1979 (fossil) 
 – Lorenziellites Nagy, 1986 (fossil) 
 – Lorenziellopsis Nagy, 1989 (fossil) 
 – Praecalpionellites Pop, 1986 (fossil) 
 – Semichitinoidella Nowak, 1978 (fossil) 
 – Sopianella Nagy, 1989 (fossil) 
 – Sturiella Borza, 1981 (fossil) 
 Family CYTTAROCYLIDIDAE Kofoid & 
Campbell, 1939 
 (syns. Cyttarocylidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; lorica, bell- or kettle-
shaped, sometimes elongate; lorica wall with very 
conspicuous meshwork between wall layers and 
conspicuous wall material in broad bars sepa-
rating polygons ; lorica collar slightly flared, with 
inner suboral shelf; in marine habitats, predomi-
nantly eupelagic; no fossil species; one genus. 
 – Cyttarocylis Fol, 1881 
 Family DICTYOCYSTIDAE Haeckel, 1873 
 Size, small to medium; lorica, ovoid to coni-
cal with dense bowl; lorica collar with one or 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 353
two rows of open-arched frames, windows or 
fenestrae (latter with or without panes) ; lorica 
wall of bowl reticulate and, in some species, 
agglomerated with coccoliths or mineral particles; 
in marine habitats, eupelagic; no fossil species; 
two genera. 
 – Dictyocysta Ehrenberg, 1854 
 – Wangiella Nie, 1934 
 Family EPIPLOCYLIDIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1939
 (syns. Epiplocyclididae , Epiplocylidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; lorica, short, acorn-
shaped with aboral end blunt acuminate or with 
horn ; lorica oral rim, smooth, with collarette or suboral 
shelf; lorica wall, thin, hyaline, with its surface 
partially or entirely ornamented with polygons 
bounded by raised edges ; in marine habitats, eupe-
lagic; no fossil species; three genera. 
 – Epicancella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Epiplocylis Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Epiplocyloides Hada, 1938 
 Family METACYLIDIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 (syns. Calpionellidae p.p ., Coxliellidae p.p ., 
 Metacycoidinae , Metacylin[e]ae ) 
 Size, medium to large; lorica, tubular or goblet-
shaped, delicate and with rings or spirals as wound 
lamina, at least in oral half ; lorica aboral end 
sometimes with horn; lorica wall, three-layered, 
usually with distinct and delicate alveoli, some-
times with agglomerated coccoliths ; paralorica, 
coxlielliform; sometimes an epilorica; in marine 
habitats, eupelagic and neritic, though occasion-
ally one found in fresh water; a number of fossil 
species; eight genera and two genera incertae 
sedis . 
NOTE : The genus Coxliella via its type-spe-
cies, at least, may actually have no reality. Laval-
Peuto (1977, 1994a) has demonstrated that there 
is a “coxlielliform” stage in the life cycle of many 
 tintinnines , including species from a number of 
families. Thus, Corliss (1979) placed the generic 
name in a “questionable” status (see below) and 
replaced the former familial name ( Coxliellidae ) 
with the next name available for the group, viz ., 
 Metacylididae (originally the second included sub-
family). 
 – Climacocylis Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Favelloides Thalmann, 1942 (fossil) 
 – Helicostomella Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Metacylis Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Pseudometacylis Balech, 1968 
 – Rhabdonelloides Colom, 1939 (fossil) 
 – Spiroxystonellites Knauer, 1969 (fossil) 
Nomen inquirendum : Coxliella Brandt, 1906 
(fossil) 
Incertae sedis in Family Metacylididae 
 – Rhizodomus Strelkov & Wirketis, 1950 
 – Stylicauda Balech, 1951 
 Family NOLACLUSILIIDAE Sniezek, Capriulo, 
Small, & Russo, 1991 
 Size, small; lorica, hyaline, bell-shaped, with 
hinged, oral flaps that close lorica opening when 
ciliate retracts ; macronucleus, bilobed; in marine 
habitats, particularly estuarine and coastal plankton;
one genus. 
 – Nolaclusilis Snyder & Brownlee, 1991 
 Family PETALOTRICHIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 Size, medium; lorica, bell-shaped with flared lip 
on top of vertical cone; lorica lip and bowl with 
small, suboral fenestrae ; in marine habitats, eupe-
lagic; two genera. 
 – Parapetalotricha Hada, 1970 
 – Petalotricha Kent, 1881 
 Family PTYCHOCYLIDIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 (syns. Ptychocyclidae , Ptychacyclididae , Ptycho-
cylidae ) 
 Size, small to large; lorica conical or chalice-
shaped with several annular bulges and pointed 
or blunt pedicel ; lorica oral rim, often denticulate, 
with no collar; lorica wall, apparently trilaminate,
alveolar in midsection ; paralorica, coxlielliform; 
epilorica, if present, possibly spiralled; in marine 
habitats, mostly eupelagic; no fossil species; five 
genera.
354 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
 – Cymatocylis Laackmann, 1910 
 – Favella Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Protocymatocylis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Ptychocylis Brandt, 1896 
 – Wailesia Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 
 Family RHABDONELLIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 Size, medium to large; lorica, acorn to chalice-
shaped, often very long with aboral horn in some 
species; lorica oral rim, smooth; lorica wall, tril-
aminate, hyaline with longitudinal, low ridges 
that may be simple, branched or anastomosing, 
sometimes with pores ; in marine habitats, mostly 
eupelagic; no fossil species; four genera. 
 – Epirhabdonella Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 
 – Protorhabdonella Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Rhabdonella Brandt, 1906 
 – Rhabdonellopsis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 Family TINTINNIDAE Claparède & Lachmann, 
1858
 (syns. Salpingellinae p.p ., Stelidiellinae p.p ., 
 Tintinninae p.p .) 
 Size, medium to large; lorica elongate, typically 
tubular, and in some species, with both ends of lorica 
open; lorica oral end often flared, smooth or denticulate; 
lorica wall, thin, hyaline, probably unilaminar, 
appearing homogeneous with clear inner and 
outer layers ; lorica surface ornamentation frequently 
as ridges and crests, which may be spiralled; prima-
rily in marine habitats, eupelagic,

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