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A u s t r a l i a • C a n a d a • M e x i c o • S i n g a p o r e • S p a i n • U n i t e d K i n g d o m • U n i t e d S t a t e s 
Margi Sirois, EdD, MS, RVT
Program Director of Veterinary 
Penn Foster College 
Scottsdale, AZ
Elaine Anthony, MA, CVT
St. Petersburg College
St. Petersburg, FL
Danielle Mauragis, CVT
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2009905813
ISBN-13: 978-1-4354-2603-0
ISBN-10: 1-4354-2603-7
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Handbook of Radiographic Positioning for 
Veterinary Technicians 
Margi Sirois, Danielle Mauragis, and Elaine 
Vice President, Career and Professional 
 Editorial: Dave Garza
Director of Learning Solutions: Matthew Kane
Acquisitions Editor: Benjamin Penner
Managing Editor: Marah Bellegarde 
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Vice President, Career and Professional 
 Marketing: Jennifer McAvey
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Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08
CHAPTER 1 General Principles of Small Animal Radiographic Positioning 
Patient Preparation 2
Directional Terminology 2
Positioning Aids 4
Procedures for Radiographic Positioning 5
CHAPTER 2 Thoracic Radiographs
Lateral Projection of the Thorax 10
VD Projection of the Thorax 12
DV Projection of the Thorax 14
Standing Lateral Projection of the Thorax 16
CHAPTER 3 Abdominal Radiographs
Lateral Projection of the Abdomen 20
VD Projection of the Abdomen 22
CHAPTER 4 Pelvic Radiographs
VD-Extended Hip Projection 26
VD Frog Leg Projection 28
Lateral Projection of the Pelvis 30
CHAPTER 5 Forelimb Radiographs
CdCr Projection of the Shoulder 34
Lateral Projection of the Shoulder 36
CdCr Projection of the Scapula 38
Lateral Projection of the Scapula 40
CdCr Projection of the Humerus 42
Lateral Projection of the Humerus 44
CrCd Projection of the Elbow 46
Lateral Projection of the Elbow 48
Flexed Lateral Projection of the Elbow 50
CrCd Projection of the Radius and Ulna 52
Lateral Projection of the Radius and Ulna 54
Dorsopalmar Projection of the Carpus 56
Lateral Projection of the Carpus 58
Flexed Lateral Projection of the Carpus 60
Extended Lateral Projection of the Carpus 62
Lateral and Medial Oblique Projections of the Carpus 64
Dorsopalmar Projection of the Metacarpals 66
Lateral Projection of the Metacarpals 68
Dorsopalmar Projection of the Digits 70
Lateral Projection of the Digits 72
CHAPTER 6 Hindlimb Radiographs
Lateral Projection of the Femur 76
Craniocaudal Projection of the Femur 78
Table of Contents
vi Table of Contents
Caudocranial Projection of the Stifl e 80
Lateral Projection of the Stifl e 82
Caudocranial Projection of the Tibia and Fibula 84
Lateral Projection of the Tibia 86
Dorsoplantar Projection of the Tarsus 88
Lateral Projection of the Tarsus 90
Flexed Lateral Projection of the Tarsus 92
Extended Lateral Projection of the Tarsus 94
Dorsolateral/Plantaromedial Oblique Projection of the Tarsus 96
Dorsomedial/Plantarolateral Oblique Projection of the Tarsus 98
Dorsoplantar Projection of the Metatarsus 100
Lateral Projection of the Metatarsus 102
Dorsopalmar Projection of the Digits 104
Lateral Projection of the Digits 106
CHAPTER 7 Skull Radiographs
Lateral Projection of the Skull 110
DV Projection of the Skull 112
VD Projection of the Skull 114
Rostrocaudal Sinuses Closed Mouth Projection 116
Rostrocaudal Foramen Magnum Projection 118
VD Rostrocaudal Nasal Open Mouth Projection 120
Rostrocaudal Tympanic Bullae Open Mouth Projection 122
DV Tympanic Bullae Projection 126
Lateral Oblique Tympanic Bullae Projection 128
Lateral Oblique Temporomandibular Joint Projection 130
DV Temporomandibular Joint Projection 132
CHAPTER 8 Dental Radiographs
Canine Upper Incisor Arcade 137
Canine Upper Canine Tooth 138
Canine Upper Premolars 139
Canine Upper Fourth Premolars and Molars 140
Canine Lower Incisor Arcade 141
Canine Lower Canine Tooth and Lower Premolar Arcade 142
Canine Lower Premolar Arcade 143
Canine Lower Molars 144
Feline Upper Incisor Arcade 145
Feline Upper Canine Tooth 146
Feline Upper Premolars and Molar 147
Feline Lower Incisor Arcade 148
Feline Lower Canine Tooth 149
Feline Lower Premolars and Molar Arcade 150
CHAPTER 9 Spinal Radiographs
VD Cervical Spine Projection 152
Lateral Cervical Spine Projection 154
Lateral Cervical Spine Extended Projection 156
Lateral Cervical Spine Flexed Projection 158
VD Thoracic Spine Projection 160
Lateral Thoracic Spine Projection 162
VD Thoracolumbar Spine Projection 164
Lateral Thoracolumbar Spine Projection 166
VD Lumbar Spine Projection 168
Lateral Lumbar Spine Projection 170
VD Lumbosacral Spine Projection 172
Lateral Lumbosacral Spine Projection 174
VD Coccygeal (Caudal) Spine Projection 176
Lateral Coccygeal (Caudal) Spine Projection 178
 Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER 10 Radiography of Avian and Exotic Animals
General Principles of Restraint 182
Lateral View of the Avian Patient 184
Ventrodorsal View of the Avian Patient 186
Dorsoventral View of the Lizard