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Livro - Introduction to Ceramics processing - HEINRICH

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Introduction to 
Ceramics Processing 
Jürgen G. Heinrich 
Cynthia M. Gomes 
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Authors 
Jürgen G. Heinrich is Professor of Engineering Ceramics at the Institute of 
Non-metallic Materials at Clausthal University of Technology, Germany. He 
received a B.Sc. degree in materials engineering from the Johann Friedrich 
Böttger Institute in Selb, Germany, a M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in materials science 
both from the Technical University in Berlin, Germany. He joined the faculty 
of Materials Science at Clausthal University of Technology after several 
years of research activity at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne and at Hoechst 
CeramTec AG in Selb, Germany. He was president of the German and the European 
Ceramic Society and secretary of the International Ceramic Foundation. He is fellow of the 
American and the European Ceramic Society, editor of the Journal of Ceramic Science and 
Technology and Senior Visiting Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 
Cynthia M. Gomes is research scientist at the BAM, Federal Institute 
for Materials Research and Testing in Berlin, Germany. She received 
her Diploma in Materials Science and Engineering from the Federal 
University of Paraiba, Brazil, with M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Materials Science 
and Engineering both from the Federal University Santa Catarina, 
Brazil. After working as guest visitor scientist and a two-year post 
doctorate at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg she has joined the BAM. At the Division 
for Ceramic Processing and Biomaterials she has been working mainly in the field of 
additive manufacturing of ceramic materials, co-working also on national and international 
(DIN, ISO) groups for standardization of these technologies. 
Acknowledgement 
For a better understanding of the theory video clips and computer animations are available in 
this lecture manuscript. The videos have been shot at different ceramic manufacturers and 
equipment as well as raw material suppliers by the cameraman of Clausthal University of 
Technology, Stefan Zimmer. We would like to take the opportunity to thank him for his 
professional work and excellent performance and the following companies for their 
assistance: 
ARBURG GmbH & Co KG, Loßburg, Germany 
BHS tabletop AG, Weiden, Germany 
CeramTec GmbH, Marktredwitz, Germany 
Engineered Pressure Systems International N.V. 
Oost-Vlaanderen,Belgium 
Imerys Tableware GmbH, Tirschenreuth, Germany 
Riedhammer GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany 
Rosenthal GmbH, Selb, Germany 
SGL Carbon GmbH, Meitingen, Germany 
Notes
For an optimum presentation of the PDF-file please use the current Adobe Reader version: 
www.adobe.com/products/reader.html
The videoclips are available in different formats (mov, avi and mp4). To watch the videos the 
Adobe Flash Player (www.adobe.com/support/flashplayer/downloads.html) is an appropriate 
player for the most operating systems. If you cannot open the videos in the lecture 
manuscript please find them at video.tu-clausthal.de/film/435.html
Contents 
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 3 
2. Raw materials ............................................................................................................ 14
2.1 Structure of the earth ......................................................................................... 14 
2.2 Deposits ........................................................................................................ 24 
2.3 Natural ceramic raw materials ............................................................................... 31 
2.3.1 Kaolins and clays ......................................................................................... 31 
2.3.2 Feldspars ..................................................................................................... 37 
2.3.3 Quartzites and sands ................................................................................... 39 
2.3.4 Binary and ternary silicates, high alumina containing raw materials ............. 44 
2.4 Synthetic ceramics raw materials .......................................................................... 48 
2.4.1 Silicates ....................................................................................................... 48 
2.4.2 Oxides ......................................................................................................... 51 
2.4.3 Non-oxide materials ..................................................................................... 54 
2.5 Organic raw materials ........................................................................................... 56 
2.6 Raw material preparation ............................................................................... 67 
3. Body preparation ......................................................................................................... 80
3.1 Grain size modification .................................................................................. 80 
3.2 Classification ....................................................................................................... 93 
4. Forming ...................................................................................................................... 100
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 100 
4.2 General principles ............................................................................................... 100 
4.2.1 Characterisation of suspensions ................................................................ 101 
4.2.1.1 Particle charging in liquid suspensions ............................................. 101 
4.2.1.2 Electrical double layers on particle surfaces …………………………...105 
4.2.1.3 Electrokinetic properties and slip stability .................................... 107 
4.2.1.4 Rheological properties of ceramic suspensions ................................ 113 
4.2.2 Plasticity of ceramic systems ..................................................................... 118 
4.2.3 Granulation ................................................................................................ 122 
4.2.3.1 Production of granules ............................................................... 123 
4.2.3.2 Characterization of granules ............................................................. 129 
 4.3 Forming .......................................................................................................... 132 
 4.3.1 Casting processes ..................................................................................... 134 
 4.3.1.1 Slip casting ................................................................................ 134 
 4.3.1.2 Pressure casting ............................................................................... 137 
 4.3.1.3 Tape casting .............................................................................. 139 
 4.3.2 Plastic deformation forming ....................................................................... 148 
 4.3.2.1 Roller tool forming … ..................................................................... 148 
 4.3.2.2 Extrusion ................................................................................... 150 
 4.3.2.3 Injection molding … ....................................................................... 154 
 4.3.3 Pressing .................................................................................................... 162