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Reservations are requests to the warehouse to have materials ready for issue at a later date and for a particular purpose.
A reservation can also be used to plan an inward movement in advance.
A reservation ensures that a material is available when it is needed.
Analyses are available for material and account assignment.
Important functions when creating or changing reservations:
Allow movement
Set deletion indicator
Change base date
Initial situation:	
Stock 100 pcs
80 pcs reserved for today + 2d
50 pcs ordered for today + 4d
New reservation:
2.1 Reservation of 30 pcs for today + 1d ( warning message
2.2 Reservation of 30 pcs for today + 3d ( warning message
2.3 Reservation of 30 pcs for today + 5d ( ok, no warning message
2.4 Reservation of 80 pcs for today + 5d ( warning message
If the dynamic availablility check is actively set for a type of reservation, the R/3 System includes upcoming material requirements in the availability check.
The management program for reservations can both reorganize the reservation file and make mass changes to reservations.
To do so, it:
Flags items for deletion
Deletes reservations (these are not archived)
Allows movements for reservation items
The management program only includes reservations that have been manually created.
You can change the field selection depending on the movement type.
As of Release 4.5A, you can define per plant whether the R/3 System is allowed to create stock segments for reservations in a particular storage location automatically.
Goods issues can be planned or unplanned. The data to be entered depends on the type of goods issue. The R/3 System prepares various account assignment fields, depending on the movement type and system configuration. It uses automatic account determination to determine the G/L account to which the movement is posted. You enter a G/L account only if you want to post the goods movement to another account.
If a material is no longer of use, it is posted for scrapping. If a material is destroyed, this information must also be entered in the R/3 System. You can scrap material from unrestricted-use stock, stock in quality inspection, and blocked stock. When you post a material for scrapping, the R/3 System reduces the relevant stock, transfers the value of the scrapped material from the stock account to a scrap account, and debits the cost center entered.
Sample withdrawal is a goods issue generally linked to a quality inspection. The SAP sampling procedure assures you that the sample for testing is taken from the existing stock. The sampled goods are treated as destroyed \u2013 in other words, the system assumes that the material can no longer be used after the quality inspection. In this way, sampling is the same as scrapping, with the exception that the value of the sampled material is posted from the material stock account to the quality inspection expense account.
You can change movement types while you enter a goods issue.
You can use a combination of all entry techniques.
Movement types may vary for each item.
Collective entry is possible, even if the material document items have different account assignments.
A prerequisite for goods issue is that the movement is allowed for the reservation item. You can:
Restrict by storage location
Extend selection regarding requirements date
Distribute the proposed quantity
The R/3 System updates the quantity withdrawn and the corresponding value in the reservation.
You can set the final issue indicator. This means that the reservation item can be considered completed.
You cannot make reference to the reservation. All data required for the goods issue is entered directly when the goods issue is posted.
The withdrawal sequence function from Release 3.0 was replaced in 4.0A by the stock determination function. In Customizing for Inventory Management, there is a conversion report for copying the old withdrawal sequence groups to stock determination.
Stock determination is a function that can be used on a cross-application basis. It enables you to determine the stock type from which materials should be removed for withdrawals, picking, and staging transactions. 
Stock determination allows you to lay down strategies for material withdrawals by using predefined settings. This function is used in several applications, and is therefore important to the integration of the R/3 System as a whole.
You enter the stock determination group in the material master at plant level. It controls material-related stock determination.
The stock determination rule is assigned by the application in which it is called. 
The stock determination group, along with the stock determination rule, forms the unique key for the stock determination strategy at plant level.
The stock determination strategy defines which stocks can be considered for a transaction (special stock indicator, storage location), which preferences are to be included (sorting criteria), which priority these preferences should have when they are combined with other strategies, or whether stock determination is carried out online or in the background.
As of Release 4.5A, you can enter a valuation type directly in the item table, enabling you to more conveniently determine stocks for withdrawal in the case of materials with split valuation.
As of Release 4.5A, you can also include the special stocks E (sales order stock) and Q (project stock) in stock determination.
You can also manage negative stock balances for materials with moving average price control and for special stocks, such as vendor consignment, material provided to vendor, sales order stock, and project stock.
Negative stock balances are required if, for organizational reasons, goods issues are entered before the corresponding goods receipts, and the material is already physically located in the warehouse.
Once you have posted the goods receipts, the book inventory balance should correspond with the physical stock again \u2013 in other words, it should no longer be negative. Negative stocks always indicate that physical movements have to be entered in the system at a later stage.
If you work with negative stock balances, you have to ensure that you do not have negative stocks on the balance sheet key date or when you carry out a physical inventory.
As of Release 4.6A, blocked stock can also be negative.
To work with negative stock balances, you have to allow these for the relevant valuation area and storage locations in Customizing for Inventory Management.
You make the settings for negative stocks in Customizing for Inventory Management by choosing Inventory Management( Goods Issue / Transfer Postings( Allow Negative Stocks.
If the first movement of a material is an outward movement, you can define in Customizing that storage location data is created automatically for goods issues by choosing Create Storage Location Automatically.
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