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LESSON 1
	
	
	
		1.
		"It concerns the text producer's attitude that the set of occurrences should constitute a cohesive and coherent text instrumental in fulfilling the producer's intentions, e.g. to distribute knowledge or to attain a goal specified in a plan".
The STANDARD of TEXTUALITY that best explains the previous information is:
	
	
	
	intertextuality
	
	
	situationality
	
	
	informativity
	
	
	cohesion
	
	
	intentionality
		2.
		It is one of the most obvious factors of communication, but it is also one of the most important, since it relates to the beliefs and values of a group.
What kind of context does the previous information refer to?
	
	
	
	cultural context
		3.
		According to HALLIDAY &  HASAN (1976), the ties that bind a discourse or a text together are called cohesive ties (links or devices), which include the following elements, EXCEPT:
	
	
	
	metaphors
	
		4.
		In the following short passage, pick out the transitional words and phrases that are used to provide cohesion. "Margaret Fuller often passes in one breath from forcible reasoning to dreamy vagueness; moreover, her unusually varied culture gives her great command of illustration. Mary Wollstonecraft, on the other hand, is nothing if not rational; she has no erudition, and her grave pages are lit up by no ray of fancy."
	
	
	
	moreover, on the other hand
		5.
		This TYPE of CONTEXT "involves the expectation of the speaker and the audience in situations that happen regularly or have happened in the past".
The previous citation refers to:
 
	
	
	
	social context
	
	
	physical context
	
	
	historical context
	
		6.
		"It concerns the ways in which the components of the textual world, i.e. the configuration of concepts and relations which underlie the surface text are mutually accessible and relevant."
Which STANDARD OF TEXTUALITY does the previous citation refer to?
	
	
	
	cohesion
	
	
	acceptability
	
	
	intentionality
	
	
	coherence
	
	
	informativity
	
Explicação:
According to VAN DIJK, 1976,  the textual world (what the text is about) is made up of concepts and relations. COHERENCE concerns the way in which concepts and relations are mutually accessible and relevant. In other words, a coherent text is one which is easy for us to understand because it is easy for us to make a mental representation of it. Remember that it is possible for a text to be cohesive but not coherent.
 
	
	Gabarito
Coment.
	
	
	
	 
		
	
		7.
		"It concerns the way in which the components of the surface text, i.e. the actual words we hear or see, are mutually connected within a sequence".
Bearing the idea of TEXTUALITY in mind, the previous citation refers to one important STANDARD. Which one?
 
	
	
	
	cohesion
		8.
		Which of the following is not related to the text context of Van dij VAN DIJK (1977)?
	
	
	
	A text is a sequence of paragraphs that represents an extended unit of speech.
	
	
	A text is a heap of words without a link, which does not depend on a context to be understood.
Lesson 2
	
	
	
		1.
		According to VAN DIJK (1997), "this element  is the person, place, object, or idea under discussion. It is the subject that the author has chosen to discuss, describe, or explain. Discovering this element is the first step in reading for meaning".
Considering the basic elements of a paragraph, what does the previous citation refer to?
	
	
	
	development
	
	
	topic
	
		2.
		Read each paragraph and determine its topic and the stated main idea sentence: Passing fears are common in early childhood. Many 2- to 4-year-olds are afraid of animals, especially dogs. By 6 years, children are more likely to be afraid of the dark. Other common fears are of thunderstorms, doctors, and imaginary creatures.
	
	
	
	TOPIC: courage - MAIN IDEA: Many 2- to 4-year olds are afraid of animals, especially dogs.
	
	
	TOPIC: fear - MAIN IDEA: Many 2- to 4-year olds are afraid of animals, especially dogs.
	
	
	TOPIC: passing fears - MAIN IDEA: Passing fears are common in early childhood.
	
		3.
		What is the topic sentence in the following paragraph?
"Crime is a major concern in the United States. The possibility of becoming a victim of crime, particularly of a violent assault, is the number one fear of millions of Americans. This concern is well founded, as 5.3 million people over the age of 12 annually will be victimized by violent crimes. That nearly 14 million serious crimes are reported yearly to the police indicates only part of the situation. An annual study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics surveys American households to determine the extent of serious crime not being reported to law-enforment authorities. Initiated in 1973, the National Crime Survey measures the number of crimes unreported to the police as opposed to reported crime, which is documented annually by the FBI¿s Uniform Crime Reports Bulletin. The results of the National Crime Survey are disturbing to the entire criminal justice system, indicating that people and households in the United States face 49 million crime attempts a year when unreported and reported crime occurrences are combined."
Source: http://www.academia.edu/17877120/Topics_Main_Ideas_Topic_sentences
	
	
	
	The results of the National Crime Survey are disturbing to the entire criminal justice system.
	
	
	Nearly 14 million serious crimes are reported yearly to the police indicates only part of the situation.
	
	
	People and households in the United States face 49 million crime attempts a year when unreported and reported crime occurrences are combined.
	
	
	An annual study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics surveys American households to determine the extent of serious crime not being reported to law-enforment authorities.
	
	
	The possibility of becoming a victim of crime, particularly of a violent assault, is the number one fear of millions of Americans.
	
Explicação:
The topic sentence is typically the first sentence of a paragraph, and it should clearly state the main idea that you will develop throughout the paragraph.
The possibility of becoming a victim of crime, particularly of a violent assault, is the number one fear of millions of Americans. 
	
	
	
	 
		
	
		4.
		Select the statement that best expresses the main idea. "People often refer to taxes in terms of their being much too high. In reality, they are probably even higher than you think, because in addition to the federal income tax we are now studying, there are many other Federal, State, and local taxes, including sales taxes, inheritance taxes, state income taxes, personal property taxes, real estate taxes, and others. These are just some of the most obvious ones."
	
	
	
	We pay more taxes than we may realize.
	
	
	The federal, state and local taxes.
	
	
	Taxes are much too high.
	
	
	Some taxes are hidden.
	
	
	Inheritance taxes and real estate taxes are unfair.
	
Explicação:
 "People often refer to taxes in terms of their being much too high. In reality, they are probably even higher than you think, because in addition to the federal income tax we are now studying, there are many other Federal, State, and local taxes, including sales taxes, inheritance taxes, state income taxes, personal property taxes, real estate taxes, and others. These are just some of the most obvious ones."
According to BEAUGRANDE, R.& DRESSLER, W. (1981), the main idea of a passage is the core of the material, the particular point the author is trying to convey. The main idea of a passage can be stated
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