Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo
26 pág.

Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo


DisciplinaPsicologia Social9.875 materiais238.355 seguidores
Pré-visualização10 páginas
pode\u2009ser\u2009oposto\u2009a\u2009todo\u2009ques-
tionamento\u2009desse\u2009uso:\u2009trata-se\u2009de\u2009proteger\u2009as\u2009pessoas\u2009que\u2009interrogamos.\u2009Garanti-
mos\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009só\u2009vez\u2009uma\u2009certa\u2009\u201cverdade\u201d\u2009do\u2009discurso,\u2009uma\u2009certa\u2009autenticidade\u2009do\u2009
testemunho:\u2009as\u2009pessoas\u2009poderiam\u2009talvez\u2009temer\u2009as\u2009consequências\u2009daquilo\u2009que\u2009elas\u2009
poderiam\u2009dizer\u2009e,\u2009então,\u2009esconder\u2009coisas\u2009ao\u2009 investigador,\u2009 inclusive\u2009 lhe\u2009mentir,\u2009
em\u2009função\u2009dessas\u2009consequências.\u2009O\u2009velho\u2009sonho\u2009positivista\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009verdade\u2009não\u2009
parasitada\u2009pelas\u2009condições\u2009da\u2009pesquisa\u2009e\u2009o\u2009imperativo\u2009da\u2009deontologia\u2009se\u2009reforçam\u2009
aqui\u2009mutuamente,\u2009a\u2009ponto\u2009de\u2009desviar\u2009a\u2009atenção\u2009das\u2009questões\u2009que\u2009estão\u2009subenten-
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ticas\u2009de\u2009cuidado\u2009me\u2009parece\u2009igualmente\u2009em\u2009ação\u2009aqui.\u2009Mas\u2009essa\u2009necessidade\u2009não\u2009
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mato\u2009distribui\u2009os\u2009expertises\u2009e\u2009constrói,\u2009induz\u2009ou\u2009efetua\u2009a\u2009assimetria\u2009de\u2009papéis.
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posta\u2009de\u2009 início\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009consequência\u2009 lógica\u2009das\u2009análises\u2009críticas\u2009que\u2009eu\u2009di-
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geralmente\u2009as\u2009pesquisas.\u2009Na\u2009origem\u2009dessa\u2009história,\u2009 tratava-se\u2009de\u2009conduzir\u2009uma\u2009
investigação.\u2009Isso\u2009se\u2009mostrou,\u2009de\u2009início,\u2009bastante\u2009difícil.\u2009A\u2009socióloga\u2009Antoinette\u2009
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Vinciane Despret
18\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011
conta,\u2009 pareciam\u2009prolongar\u2009 inexoravelmente\u2009o\u2009 trabalho\u2009de\u2009destruição.\u2009E\u2009 eu\u2009me\u2009
perguntava\u2009frequentemente\u2009se\u2009essa\u2009pesquisa\u2009não\u2009participava\u2009também\u2009desse\u2009pro-
cesso.\u2009Temo\u2009que\u2009em\u2009alguns\u2009aspectos,\u2009ao\u2009menos\u2009no\u2009início,\u2009esse\u2009tenha\u2009sido\u2009o\u2009caso.
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esse\u2009problema.
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particularmente\u2009 visível\u2009 uma\u2009 parte\u2009 dos\u2009 pressupostos,\u2009 dos\u2009 reflexos\u2009 profissionais\u2009
inquestionáveis\u2009que\u2009estão\u2009ligados\u2009a\u2009essa\u2009prática\u2009do\u2009segredo.
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numerosos.\u2009E\u2009esperávamos\u2009antes\u2009de\u2009começar\u2009a\u2009entrevista.\u2009Às\u2009vezes\u2009durante\u2009mui-
to\u2009tempo\u2009que\u2009todas\u2009essas\u2009pessoas\u2009se\u2009fossem.\u2009E\u2009essas\u2009pessoas\u2009ficaram.\u2009Demorei\u2009
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infelicidade,\u2009de\u2009perdas,\u2009de\u2009tristeza,\u2009de\u2009relações;\u2009em\u2009resumo,\u2009de\u2009todas\u2009essas\u2009coisas\u2009
que\u2009fazem\u2009parte\u2009dessas\u2009esferas\u2009delicadas\u2009daquilo\u2009que\u2009consideramos\u2009como\u2009a\u2009inti-
midade.\u2009E\u2009eu\u2009não\u2009estava,\u2009evidentemente,\u2009me\u2009colocando\u2009a\u2009questão\u2009de\u2009saber\u2009se\u2009as\u2009
pessoas\u2009que\u2009iria\u2009encontrar\u2009definiam\u2009as\u2009coisas\u2009como\u2009eu\u2009fazia,\u2009o\u2009que,\u2009sem\u2009dúvida\u2009
alguma,\u2009não\u2009era\u2009o\u2009caso\u2009(mas\u2009este\u2009tipo\u2009de\u2009evidencias\u2009face\u2009às\u2009dobras\u2009profissionais\u2009
não\u2009tinha\u2009a\u2009chance\u2009de\u2009se\u2009impor\u2009rapidamente).\u2009Os\u2009vizinhos,\u2009amigos,\u2009família\u2009am-
pla\u2009não\u2009estavam\u2009lá\u2009por\u2009acaso.\u2009Se\u2009estavam\u2009lá,\u2009era\u2009justamente\u2009em\u2009razão\u2009de\u2009minha\u2009
vinda.\u2009O\u2009mal-estar\u2009acabou\u2009por\u2009se\u2009instalar,\u2009e\u2009devo\u2009a\u2009sensibilidade\u2009daqueles\u2009que\u2009me\u2009
acolheram\u2009haver\u2009finalmente\u2009traduzido\u2009que\u2009visivelmente\u2009era\u2009eu\u2009que\u2009necessitava\u2009de\u2009
intimidade\u2009para\u2009trabalhar.\u2009O\u2009que\u2009me\u2009parece\u2009interessante\u2009atualmente,\u2009é\u2009pensar\u2009que\u2009
essa\u2009tradução\u2009tão\u2009pertinente\u2009não\u2009me\u2009tivesse\u2009ocorrido\u2009naquela\u2009época.\u2009E\u2009se\u2009eu\u2009che-
guei,\u2009por\u2009um\u2009momento,\u2009a\u2009mudar\u2009a\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009eu\u2009concebia\u2009a\u2009prática,\u2009foi,\u2009por\u2009
outras\u2009vias,\u2009muito\u2009empíricas.\u2009O\u2009que\u2009eu\u2009vou\u2009lhes\u2009relatar\u2009agora\u2009é\u2009um\u2009dos\u2009múltiplos\u2009
acontecimentos\u2009que\u2009concorreram\u2009para\u2009essa\u2009mudança.
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um\u2009senhor\u2009de\u200960\u2009anos,\u2009um\u2009agricultor\u2009muçulmano\u2009originário\u2009da\u2009Bósnia\u2009\u2013\u2009uma\u2009vila\u2009
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com\u2009olhos\u2009azuis\u2009ainda\u2009mais\u2009brilhantes.\u2009Havíamos\u2009cumprido\u2009quase\u2009todas\u2009as\u2009etapas:\u2009
eu\u2009havia\u2009me\u2009apresentado,\u2009garantido\u2009a\u2009ele\u2009o\u2009anonimato\u2009e\u2009havíamos\u2009abordado\u2009os\u2009te-
mas\u2009que\u2009orientavam\u2009minha\u2009pesquisa.\u2009Eu\u2009me\u2009encontrava\u2009diante\u2009dele\u2009e\u2009anotava\u2009cui-
dadosamente\u2009em\u2009meu\u2009caderno\u2009suas\u2009declarações,\u2009traduzidas\u2009pela\u2009tradutora\u2009Tatiana.\u2009
Ele\u2009me\u2009falava,\u2009nesse\u2009estágio\u2009da\u2009entrevista,\u2009do\u2009desaparecimento\u2009de\u2009seu\u2009irmão.\u2009\u2009
Nesse\u2009momento,\u2009 ele\u2009 apanhou\u2009 a\u2009 caneta\u2009 que\u2009 eu\u2009 segurava\u2009 para\u2009me\u2009 dizer:\u2009
\u201cVeja\u2009a\u2009senhora,\u2009isso\u2009é\u2009o\u2009que\u2009fomos.\u2009A\u2009senhora\u2009pode\u2009ter\u2009essa\u2009caneta\u2009e\u2009escrever\u2009
com\u2009ela.\u2009Aqueles\u2009que\u2009fazem\u2009a\u2009política\u2009escrevem\u2009conosco.\u2009Eles\u2009não\u2009pegaram\u2009os\u2009
Leitura\u2009etnopsicológica\u2009do\u2009segredo
Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1,\u2009 p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 19
filhos\u2009deles\u2009para\u2009jogar\u2009e\u2009os\u2009enviaram\u2009para\u2009a\u2009guerra.\u2009Eles\u2009pegaram\u2009nossos\u2009filhos\u2009e\u2009
com\u2009eles\u2009escreveram\u2009a\u2009guerra.\u2009Somos\u2009apenas\u2009um\u2009grão\u2009de\u2009poeira\u2009nessa\u2009história\u201d.\u2009
Ele\u2009se\u2009calou.\u2009E\u2009eu\u2009apenas\u2009pude\u2009me\u2009calar\u2009e\u2009vi\u2009que\u2009Tatiana\u2009também\u2009estava\u2009perplexa,\u2009
tão\u2009emocionada\u2009quanto\u2009eu.\u2009O\u2009que\u2009fazer\u2009com\u2009essas\u2009palavras\u2009magníficas?\u2009Quem\u2009
ousaria\u2009copiar\u2009as\u2009palavras\u2009de\u2009um\u2009poeta\u2009e\u2009simplesmente\u2009anunciar:\u2009\u201cum\u2009poeta\u2009dis-
se\u201d?\u2009Esse\u2009senhor\u2009me\u2009fez\u2009um\u2009ato\u2009de\u2009resistência:\u2009tomar\u2009minha\u2009caneta\u2009nada\u2009tinha\u2009de\u2009
anódino;\u2009ele\u2009resistia\u2009muito\u2009polidamente,\u2009muito\u2009gentilmente,\u2009permitindo-me\u2009assim\u2009
compreender,\u2009aquilo\u2009que\u2009eu\u2009lhe\u2009propunha,\u2009como\u2009posição\u2009de\u2009sujeito\u2009de\u2009pesquisa.
Pois\u2009ao\u2009subordinar\u2009minha\u2009 investigação\u2009ao\u2009anonimato,\u2009eu\u2009escolhia\u2009 impli-
citamente\u2009 privilegiar\u2009 algumas\u2009 coisas,\u2009 alguns\u2009 regimes\u2009 de\u2009 discursos;\u2009 coisas\u2009 que\u2009
deviam\u2009permanecer\u2009 \u201ccobertas\u201d,\u2009 de\u2009preferência\u2009 às\u2009 coisas\u2009 de\u2009que\u2009podíamos\u2009nos\u2009
orgulhar\u2009e\u2009que\u2009teríamos\u2009vontade\u2009de\u2009assinar.
Assim,\u2009eu\u2009lhe\u2009expliquei:\u2009\u201cSuas\u2009palavras\u2009são\u2009tão\u2009belas\u2009que\u2009não\u2009podem\u2009me\u2009
pertencer.\u2009Desenvolvemos\u2009toda\u2009nossa\u2009pesquisa\u2009mantendo\u2009o\u2009anonimato\u2009daqueles\u2009
que\u2009interrogamos\u2009porque\u2009pensamos\u2009que\u2009isso\u2009poderia\u2009lhes\u2009dar\u2009confiança\u2009e\u2009prote-
gê-los,\u2009e\u2009eu\u2009me\u2009coloco\u2009agora\u2009a\u2009questão\u2009de\u2009saber\u2009se\u2009fizemos\u2009bem.\u2009Temos\u2009querido\u2009
proteger\u2009aqueles\u2009que\u2009 testemunham,\u2009mas\u2009penso\u2009que\u2009deveríamos\u2009 tê-los\u2009deixado\u2009
escolher,\u2009deixando\u2009a\u2009questão\u2009em\u2009aberto.\u2009Muitos\u2009daqueles\u2009que\u2009eu\u2009encontrei\u2009nos\u2009
disseram\u2009que\u2009o\u2009sentimento\u2009de\u2009perda\u2009da\u2009dignidade\u2009era\u2009amplificado\u2009pelo\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009
que\u2009nós\u2009os\u2009chamávamos\u2009todos\u2009de\u2009\u201cvocês,\u2009os\u2009refugiados\u201d,\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009massa\u2009anô-
nima\u2009marcada\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009identidade\u2009que\u2009eles\u2009não\u2009haviam\u2009escolhido\u2009e\u2009na\u2009qual\u2009eles\u2009
não\u2009podiam\u2009se\u2009inventar.\u2009E\u2009não\u2009levamos\u2009a\u2009sério\u2009aquilo\u2009que\u2009eles\u2009nos\u2009diziam,\u2009cada\u2009
vez\u2009 que\u2009 escrevíamos\u2009 preservando\u2009 o\u2009 anonimato\u2009 de\u2009 nossos\u2009 entrevistados:\u2009 \u201cum\u2009
refugiado\u2009me\u2009disse\u201d.\u2009Penso\u2009que\u2009deveríamos\u2009refletir\u2009com\u2009cada\u2009um\u2009a\u2009questão\u2009do\u2009
anonimato,\u2009 e\u2009 que\u2009 temos\u2009doravante\u2009 o\u2009 dever\u2009 de\u2009 fazê-lo.\u2009Foi\u2009 com\u2009o\u2009 senhor\u2009 que\u2009
aprendi\u2009isso\u201d.\u2009Ele\u2009retomou\u2009minha\u2009caneta,\u2009observou\u2009minha\u2009página,\u2009e\u2009então\u2009nela\u2009
escreveu\u2009seu\u2009nome:\u2009Jahija\u2009Smajié.
A\u2009questão\u2009do\u2009anonimato\u2009protetor,\u2009que\u2009eu\u2009não\u2009havia\u2009jamais\u2009me\u2009colocado,\u2009se\u2009
verificou\u2009nesse\u2009momento\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009questão\u2009que\u2009havíamos\u2009fechado\u2009muito\u2009rapida-
mente.\u2009Uma\u2009questão\u2009fechada\u2009à\u2009maneira\u2009do\u2009segredo\u2009que\u2009separa:\u2009coisas\u2009de\u2009que\u2009se\u2009
envergonha\u2009e\u2009coisas\u2009das\u2009quais\u2009se\u2009orgulha\u2009(e\u2009que\u2009devem\u2009permanecer\u2009no\u2009exterior);\u2009
os\u2009refugiados\u2009dos\u2009profissionais\u2009(e,\u2009eu\u2009teria\u2009um\u2009nome\u2009que\u2009iria\u2009se\u2009inscrever\u2009nos\u2009re-
latórios,\u2009nos\u2009artigos\u2009e\u2009posteriormente\u2009em\u2009um\u2009livro\u2009(CHAUVENET;\u2009DESPRET;\u2009
LEMAIRE,\u20091996).\u2009Essa\u2009questão\u2009me\u2009 fez\u2009aprender\u2009a\u2009colocá-la,\u2009a\u2009negociá-la,\u2009e\u2009a\u2009
negociar\u2009com