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que o capitalismo exige crescimento econômico contínuo, e, inevitavelmente,
esgota os recursos naturais finitos da Terra e outros recursos amplamente utilizados. Historiadores e estudiosos,
como Immanuel Wallerstein, argumentam que o trabalho não-livre, por escravos, servos, prisioneiros e outras
pessoas coagidas, é compatível com as relações capitalistas.
Ver também
Liberalismo
Libertarianismo
Anarco-capitalismo
Comunismo
Liberalismo
Socialismo
Racionismo
Propriedade Privada
Globalização
Mário Murteira
Antiglobalização
Socialização fascista.
Referências
1. ↑ "capitalism." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 24 agosto 2010
(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/93927/capitalism)
2. ↑ Liberalismo (http://www.cobra.pages.nom.br/ftm-liberalismo.html)
3. ↑ LIBERALISMO CLÁSSICO: ORIGENS HISTÓRICAS E FUNDAMENTOS BÁSICOS - UNICAMP, Por
Michelle Fernandes Lima; Alessandra Wihby; Neide de Almeida Lança Galvão Favaro
4. ↑ Bessette, Joseph M. American Justice, Volume 2. Salem Press (1996). p. 637
5. ↑ The Idea of Capitalism before the Industrial Revolution. Critical Issues in History. Lanham, Md: Rowman and
Littlefield, 1999, p. 1
6. ↑ Tormey, Simon. Anti-Capitalism. One World Publications, 2004. p. 10
7. ↑ Scott, John. Industrialism: A Dictionary of Sociology. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press, 2005.
8. ↑ Tucker, Irvin B.. Macroeconomics for Today. [S.l.: s.n.], 1997. 553 p.
9. ↑ Case, Karl E.. Principles of Macroeconomics. [S.l.]: Prentice Hall, 2004.
10. ↑ Stilwell, Frank. “Political Economy: the Contest of Economic Ideas.” First Edition. Oxford University
Press. Melbourne, Australia. 2002.
11. ↑ "Economic systems". Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite. (Chicago: Encyclopædia
Britannica, 2009)
12. ↑ "Capitalism (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/93927/capitalism) ". Encyclopædia Britannica.
13. ↑ BRAUDEL, Fernand. The Wheels of Commerce, Vol. 2, Civilization & Capitalism 15th-18th Century
(http://books.google.com/?
id=WPDbSXQsvGIC&lpg=PP1&dq=capitalism%20and%20civilization%20wheels%20of%20commerce&pg=
PP1#v=onepage&q=) . Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982. 231–373 p. ISBN 9780520081154
14. ↑ Banaji, Jairus. (2007). "Islam, the Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism". Journal Historical
[70]
[71]
a b c
a b
a b c d
a b c
Materialism 15: 47–74. Brill Publishers. DOI:10.1163/156920607X171591
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156920607X171591) .
15. ↑ Capitalism. [S.l.]: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2006.
16. ↑ Werhane, P.H.. (1994). "Adam Smith and His Legacy for Modern Capitalism". The Review of Metaphysics 47
(3). Philosophy Education Society, Inc..
17. ↑ "free enterprise." Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition. Philip Lief Group 2008.
18. ↑ Mutualist.org (http://www.mutualist.org/) . "...based on voluntary cooperation, free exchange, or mutual aid."
19. ↑ Barrons Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms. 1995. p. 74
20. ↑ "Market economy" (http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=market%20economy) ,
Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary
21. ↑ About Cato (http://www.cato.org/about.php) . Cato.org. Página visitada em 6 November 2008.
22. ↑ The Achievements of Nineteenth-Century Classical Liberalism
(http://www.cato.org/university/module10.html) .
Although the term "liberalism" retains its original meaning in most of the world, it has
unfortunately come to have a very different meaning in late twentieth-century America. Hence
terms such as "market liberalism," "classical liberalism," or "libertarianism" are often used in its
place in America.
23. ↑ Etymology of "Cattle" (http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=cattle)
24. ↑ Ricardo, David. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. 1821. John Murray Publisher, 3rd edition.
25. ↑ Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Tabel The Complete Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(http://books.google.com/books?id=ma-4W-
XiGkIC&printsec=titlepage&dq=%22capitalists+for+having+labor+at+demand) . page 267.
26. ↑ James Augustus Henry Murray. "Capitalism" page 94.
27. ↑ Braudel, Fernand. The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism 15-18 Century, Harper and Row,
1979, p.237
28. ↑ Karl Marx. Chapter 16: Absolute and Relative Surplus-Value. Das Kapital.
Die Verlängrung des Arbeitstags über den Punkt hinaus, wo der Arbeiter nur ein Äquivalent für
den Wert seiner Arbeitskraft produziert hätte, und die Aneignung dieser Mehrarbeit durch das
Kapital - das ist die Produktion des absoluten Mehrwerts. Sie bildet die allgemeine Grundlage
des kapitalistischen Systems und den Ausgangspunkt der Produktion des relativen Mehrwerts.
The prolongation of the working-day beyond the point at which the labourer would have
produced just an equivalent for the value of his labour-power, and the appropriation of that
surplus-labour by capital, this is production of absolute surplus-value. It forms the general
groundwork of the capitalist system, and the starting-point for the production of relative
surplus-value.
29. ↑ Karl Marx. Chapter Twenty-Five: The General Law of Capitalist Accumulation. Das Kapital.
Die Erhöhung des Arbeitspreises bleibt also eingebannt in Grenzen, die die Grundlagen des
kapitalistischen Systems nicht nur unangetastet lassen, sondern auch seine Reproduktion auf
wachsender Stufenleiter sichern.
Die allgemeinen Grundlagen des kapitalistischen Systems einmal gegeben, tritt im Verlauf der
Akkumulation jedesmal ein Punkt ein, wo die Entwicklung der Produktivität der gesellschaftlichen
Arbeit der mächtigste Hebel der Akkumulation wird.
Wir sahen im vierten Abschnitt bei Analyse der Produktion des relativen Mehrwerts: innerhalb des
kapitalistischen Systems vollziehn sich alle Methoden zur Steigerung der gesellschaftlichen
Produktivkraft der Arbeit auf Kosten des individuellen Arbeiters;
30. ↑ Saunders, Peter (1995). Capitalism. University of Minnesota Press. p. 1
31. ↑ Burnham, Peter. Capitalism: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. [S.l.]: Oxford University
Press, 2003.
32. ↑ Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation. Beacon Press, Boston.1944.p87
33. ↑ Warburton, David, Macroeconomics from the beginning: The General Theory, Ancient Markets, and the Rate
of Interest. Paris: Recherches et Publications, 2003.p49
34. ↑ The Rise of Capitalism (http://history.howstuffworks.com/european-history/capitalism3.htm)
35. ↑ Quoted in Sir George Clark, The Seventeenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), p. 24.
a b c
a b c
a b
a b c d e f
36. ↑ Mancur Olson, The rise and decline of nations: economic growth, stagflation, and social rigidities (New
Haven & London 1982).
37. ↑ Economic system :: Market systems (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/178493/economic-
system/61117/Market-systems#toc242146) . [S.l.]: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2006.
38. ↑ Schumpeter, J.A. (1954) History of Economic Analysis
39. ↑ Watt steam engine image: located in the lobby of into the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of
a the UPM (Madrid)
40. ↑ Hume, David. Political Discourses. Edinburgh: A. Kincaid & A. Donaldson, 1752.
41. ↑ laissez-faire (http://www.bartleby.com/65/la/laissezf.html) .
42. ↑ Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation, Beacon Press. Boston. 1944. p.78
43. ↑ Navigation Acts (http://www.bartleby.com/65/na/NavigatA.html) .
44. ↑ LaHaye, Laura (1993). Mercantilism (http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Mercantilism.html) . Concise
Encyclepedia of Economics. Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics.
45. ↑ Barnes, Trevor J.. Reading economic geography. [S.l.]: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. 127 p. ISBN 063123554X
46. ↑ Fulcher, James. Capitalism. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
47. ↑ HENWOOD, Doug. After the New Economy. [S.l.]: New Press, 1 October 2003. ISBN 1-56584-770-9
48. ↑ Hernando de Soto. The mystery of capital (http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2001/03/desoto.htm) .
Página visitada em 26 de fevereiro de 2008.
49. ↑ Karl Marx. Capital, v. 1. Part VIII: primitive accumulation
(http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch27.htm)