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people and make changes on a policy level.”
4- Shenk says that a perception of self-limitation is one of the biggest barriers to great achievements. 
However, when you look at someone with great talent, you think you´re so far away from what you 
are capable of, you assume that you can’t get there.” But not everyone is convinced by Shenk’s 
arguments. “The idea that all of us have genius inside us is so desirable, but it is totally a wish. 
The truth is that we don’t know how to create it and we don’t know how to inspire it,” said Wendy 
Johnson, a leading researcher on intelligence and genetics at the University of Edinburgh.
5- Professor Johnson agreed that people often have greater potential than they imagine, for 
example in mathematics. But to compare that with genius, it is taking the theory too far. “We can 
teach every 12th-grade student to do calculus. Genius is not being able to calculate a derivative 
— it is doing what Newton and Leibniz did: inventing it.” Shenk concedes that the title of his book 
is meant to be provocative but says that the basic thesis is sound. “I am not saying that anyone 
can be anything, but nobody can be great at anything unless they have a fundamental belief that 
it is possible.”
Adapted from an article by Hannah Devlin
Nature versus Nurture: genética versus criação (educação)
Perfectpitch: ótimo ouvido musical
Tonal languages: língua em que tons diferentes distinguem significados
Traits: traços; características
To cave in: ceder 
Assinale a alternativa que traz a ideia principal do trecho abaixo, extraído do 
parágrafo 3.
Even personality traits such as tenacity or diligence, likely to influence success in 
any sphere of life, are malleable rather than fixed products of our genes.
a) São os genes que determinam os traços de personalidade que uma pessoa terá.
b) Nem todos os traços de personalidade podem ser influenciados pelos genes.
c) Os traços de personalidade que influenciam o sucesso podem ser maleáveis, 
mas alguns são produtos fixos nos nossos genes.
d) Até mesmo traços de personalidade podem ser mudados ou influenciados.
e) A tenacidade e diligência são traços que gostaríamos que fossem maleáveis.
A resposta correta é a opção D. Essa é uma questão de informação detalhada, que avalia a 
compreensão de trechos específicos extraídos do texto. A questão indica qual é o trecho a ser 
analisado e de qual parágrafo ele foi retirado. 
A estratégia de leitura mais utilizada para este tipo de questão é o skimming. Ao realizar skimming, 
o leitor busca apenas captar o assunto mais importante do parágrafo. Sendo o leitor ativo, ele 
deve fazer predições, utilizar elementos tipográficos e seu conhecimento prévio para construir o 
sentido do parágrafo. Se o leitor retornar ao parágrafo 3, através do skimming, conseguirá concluir 
que o parágrafo traz exemplo de um experimento que mostrou como os genes influenciam a 
auto-disciplina das crianças (“In the experiment, four-year-old children were given the option 
of receiving one cookie immediately or waiting 15 minutes to get two cookies. One third of the 
children immediately opted for the single cookie; one third waited a few minutes but caved in 
to temptation; one third patiently waited to receive two cookies. When comparing their school 
assessment test scores taken at 18 years, Professor Mischel found that the children who had 
waited scored 210 points more than those who opted for instant gratification. The message that 
some took from this was that some children are naturally more self-disciplined and are destined 
to do better.”), mas outra pesquisa mostra que elas podem ser ensinadas aos benefícios da 
auto-disciplina (“Subsequent research has shown that children can be taught the benefits of 
self-discipline.”). Assim, no trecho “Even personality traits such as tenacity or diligence, likely to 
influence success in any sphere of life, are malleable rather than fixed products of our genes.” a 
ideia principal é de que até mesmo os traços de personalidade podem ser mudados. 
Qual a ideia central do texto? 
a) O texto informa sobre o que é habilidade natural e por que algumas pessoas nascem 
com certas habilidades e outras não.
b) O texto defende a influência da genética no desenvolvimento das habilidades.
c) O texto é uma crítica aos psicólogos que acreditam que todos têm um gênio dentro 
de si, mas vivem na mediocridade.
d) O texto traz informações sobre os diferentes tipos de habilidades e explica como 
desenvolvê-las durante a vida.
A resposta correta é a opção B. Essa é uma questão que tem como objetivo avaliar se o 
leitor compreendeu a ideia central do texto e/ou o motivo que levou o autor a escrevê-lo. A 
alternativa escolhida deve abranger o texto de forma geral, não apenas partes dele. A estratégia 
de leitura mais utilizada para este tipo de questão é o skimming, já citado anteriormente. Ao ler 
o primeiro parágrafo do texto, o leitor já se depara com innate talents, genetic predisposition, 
genes, DNA, influence, e outras palavras que possivelmente conhece. Somando isso e fazendo 
uma conexão lógica das ideias de cada parágrafo (geralmente a primeira sentença indica a ideia 
central do parágrafo), percebe-se que o texto nos informa sobre como a genética influencia o 
desenvolvimento de habilidades inatas.
Saving Agriculture
1- All around the world, the push to globalize the 
food supply by consolidating food production into 
large-scale, corporatized agricultural systems 
controlled by a select few is causing massive 
environmental destruction and immense 
poverty. And the best way to truly turn things 
around is to return to small-scale, independent, 
organic farming models in which people, not 
corporations, control the food supply, and grow 
quality food for their families and communities without government interference.
2- It may sound overly simplistic or even unrealistic in modern world terms, but small-scale farming 
methods that include growing a variety of crops on smaller plots, rotating crops to maintain soil 
quality and avoiding the overuse of harmful chemicals are still among the best ways to conserve 
land and ensure an abundant, nutrient-dense food supply. Apart from these methods, agriculture 
as we know it is doomed, as mankind will eventually greed itself into extinction. Report after report 
-- the kind governments and big organizations choose to override – says that the best way to 
ensure that everyone is well fed, sustainably and securely, is through small-scale, independent, 
organic farming. These must be labor-intensive, so there is no advantage in them being large 
3- Michel Tudge warns about the dangers of corporatized agricultural systems and the elimination 
of people-driven agricultural models. He notes how the ongoing system is causing the separation 
of people from the land all around the world and destroying cultures, societies, and the planet 
at large. In the not too distant future, if current trends continue, the whole of humanity will have 
essentially been ultimately banished from its agricultural heritage into pauperism and starvation. 
“Industrial farming can’t feed everybody, and it has led to mass unemployment and poverty,” he 
4- Some farmers believe that small-scale farming methods could save agriculture from the 
profit systems that are destroying it both in America and abroad. The reason why farmers think 
that way, and perhaps the most obvious reason, is that small-scale farming methods promote 
individual rather than corporate ownership of food. When small farms control their own food 
supplies, corporations and governments are unable to transform agriculture into a centralized 
system driven by the maximization of profits through whatever means possible. Another reason is 
that small-scale, bio-diverse farming methods