Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo
26 pág.

Leitura etnopsicologica do segredo


DisciplinaPsicologia Social9.735 materiais235.543 seguidores
Pré-visualização10 páginas
cação\u2009afeta,\u2009em\u2009contrapartida,\u2009aqueles\u2009que\u2009são\u2009classificados\u2009como\u2009tais:\u2009
As\u2009 ciências\u2009 ditas\u2009 humanas,\u2009 ou\u2009 sociais\u2009 [ele\u2009 diz\u2009 em\u2009 sua\u2009
lição\u2009 inaugural\u2009 no\u2009 Collège\u2009 de\u2009 France]\u2009 não\u2009 diferem\u2009
fundamentalmente\u2009 das\u2009 ciências\u2009 ditas\u2009 da\u2009 natureza\u2009 sob\u2009
o\u2009 pretexto\u2009 de\u2009 que\u2009 elas\u2009 tratam\u2009 daquilo\u2009 que\u2009 se\u2009 denomina\u2009
construções\u2009 sociais.\u2009 Elas\u2009 tampouco\u2009 não\u2009 diferem\u2009 porque\u2009
dependem\u2009 mais\u2009 da\u2009 compreensão\u2009 [Verstehen]\u2009 que\u2009 da\u2009
explicação,\u2009predição\u2009e\u2009controle.\u2009Elas\u2009diferem\u2009porque\u2009há\u2009uma\u2009
interação\u2009 dinâmica\u2009 entre\u2009 as\u2009 classificações\u2009 desenvolvidas\u2009
nas\u2009ciências\u2009sociais\u2009e\u2009os\u2009indivíduos\u2009ou\u2009os\u2009comportamentos\u2009
que\u2009 foram\u2009 classificados.\u2009Ao\u2009 qualificar\u2009 um\u2009 tipo\u2009 de\u2009 pessoa\u2009
ou\u2009 comportamento,\u2009 podemos\u2009 afetar\u2009 diretamente\u2009 ao\u2009 ponto\u2009
mesmo\u2009de\u2009transformá-lo\u2009(HACKING,\u20091995).\u2009
Podemos\u2009assim\u2009dizer\u2009que\u2009os\u2009atuais\u2009sistemas\u2009de\u2009diagnóstico\u2009e\u2009tratamento\u2009
contribuem\u2009eles\u2009mesmos\u2009para\u2009produzir\u2009um\u2009gênero\u2009de\u2009comportamento\u2009anormal\u2009
característico\u2009da\u2009doença.\u2009Classificação\u2009e\u2009diagnóstico\u2009são\u2009então\u2009construídos,\u2009e\u2009esta\u2009
própria\u2009construção\u2009interage\u2009com\u2009as\u2009pessoas\u2009perturbadas\u2009e\u2009contribui\u2009para\u2009produzir\u2009
Vinciane Despret
8\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011
seu\u2009comportamento,\u2009o\u2009que\u2009por\u2009sua\u2009vez,\u2009confirma\u2009o\u2009diagnóstico.\u2009A\u2009interação\u2009pode\u2009
certamente\u2009assumir\u2009diferentes\u2009formas:\u2009uma\u2009classificação\u2009imposta\u2009de\u2009cima\u2009pode\u2009ser\u2009
reordenada\u2009diferentemente\u2009pelas\u2009pessoas\u2009classificadas:\u2009a\u2009revolução\u2009gay\u2009é\u2009um\u2009belo\u2009
exemplo\u2009disso.\u2009As\u2009pessoas\u2009podem\u2009ao\u2009contrário\u2009responder\u2009ao\u2009diagnóstico\u2009confor-
mando-se\u2009a\u2009ele:\u2009as\u2009histéricas\u2009de\u2009Charcot\u2009eram\u2009bem\u2009mais\u2009histéricas\u2009que\u2009as\u2009de\u2009seus\u2009
colegas\u2009de\u2009província\u2009e\u2009o\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009que\u2009as\u2009histéricas\u2009praticamente\u2009não\u2009existam\u2009mais\u2009
hoje\u2009em\u2009dia\u2009confirma\u2009o\u2009efeito\u2009da\u2009classificação:\u2009não\u2009há\u2009mais\u2009um\u2009nicho\u2009ecológico\u2009
para\u2009a\u2009histeria.\u2009Da\u2009mesma\u2009forma,\u2009as\u2009personalidades\u2009múltiplas\u2009existem\u2009somente\u2009lá\u2009
onde\u2009há\u2009terapeutas\u2009que\u2009estão\u2009disponíveis\u2009para\u2009operar\u2009esse\u2009tipo\u2009de\u2009diagnóstico.
Por\u2009outro\u2009lado,\u2009Philippe\u2009Pignarre\u2009(2001)\u2009se\u2009inquieta\u2009com\u2009o\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009a\u2009depres-
são\u2009se\u2009tornar\u2009uma\u2009epidemia\u2009no\u2009momento\u2009em\u2009que\u2009o\u2009mercado\u2009está\u2009inundado\u2009de\u2009anti-
depressivos:\u2009os\u2009medicamentos\u2009criaram\u2009o\u2009transtorno,\u2009os\u2009doentes\u2009são\u2009\u201creconhecidos\u201d\u2009
nessa\u2009nova\u2009sintomatologia\u2009e\u2009copiaram\u2009seus\u2009sintomas\u2009dos\u2009medicamentos\u2009psicotró-
picos\u2009considerados\u2009capazes\u2009de\u2009agir\u2009sobre\u2009esses\u2009mesmos\u2009sintomas.\u2009Mikkel\u2009Borch-
Jakobsen\u2009(2002)\u2009atribuirá\u2009esta\u2009mobilidade\u2009das\u2009\u201cdoenças\u2009transitórias\u201d\u2009ao\u2009caráter\u2009de\u2009
profecia\u2009autorrealizadora\u2009dos\u2009diagnósticos.\u2009Ou,\u2009para\u2009falar\u2009de\u2009maneira\u2009mais\u2009geral,\u2009
como\u2009propõe\u2009o\u2009etnopsiquiatra\u2009Tobie\u2009Nathan\u2009(2001,\u2009p.\u2009239)\u2009a\u2009propósito\u2009do\u2009autismo\u2009
infantil,\u2009\u201ca\u2009teoria\u2009dos\u2009terapeutas\u2009constrói\u2009a\u2009patologia\u2009de\u2009que\u2009eles\u2009cuidam\u201d.1
Voltemos\u2009à\u2009presença\u2009de\u2009Achille.\u2009Afirmei\u2009que\u2009a\u2009leitura\u2009dessa\u2009história\u2009torna\u2009
legível\u2009uma\u2009mudança\u2009que\u2009se\u2009opera\u2009na\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009tratar\u2009os\u2009transtornos:\u2009a\u2009rela-
ção\u2009que\u2009se\u2009inscrevia\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009relação\u2009com\u2009a\u2009exterioridade,\u2009com\u2009outras\u2009intencio-
nalidades,\u2009é\u2009totalmente\u2009deslocada\u2009e\u2009convertida\u2009em\u2009uma\u2009outra\u2009relação.\u2009A\u2009desordem\u2009
é,\u2009agora,\u2009instalada\u2009na\u2009psiché.\u2009O\u2009que,\u2009no\u2009primeiro\u2009mundo,\u2009podia\u2009se\u2009traduzir\u2009como\u2009
punição\u2009 transforma-se,\u2009 no\u2009 segundo,\u2009 em\u2009 culpabilidade\u2009 e,\u2009 portanto,\u2009 plenamente\u2009
acessível\u2009a\u2009uma\u2009teoria,\u2009quiçá\u2009a\u2009uma\u2009técnica\u2009da\u2009psiché.\u2009Janet\u2009vai\u2009propor\u2009a\u2009Achille\u2009
redefinir\u2009seu\u2009transtorno\u2009em\u2009concordância\u2009com\u2009a\u2009maneira\u2009como\u2009ele\u2009mesmo\u2009pode\u2009
intervir:\u2009o\u2009que\u2009era\u2009possessão\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009entidade\u2009estrangeira\u2009torna-se\u2009\u201csegredo\u201d.\u2009O\u2009
segredo\u2009não\u2009torna\u2009tão\u2009doente\u2009apenas\u2009porque\u2009ele\u2009oferece\u2009uma\u2009via\u2009real\u2009para\u2009a\u2009cura.
Lá\u2009 onde\u2009 as\u2009 técnicas\u2009 se\u2009 dirigem\u2009 à\u2009psiché,\u2009 se\u2009 declinam\u2009 sobre\u2009 o\u2009modo\u2009 de\u2009
revelações,\u2009se\u2009estendem\u2009na\u2009ordem\u2009da\u2009verdade\u2009e,\u2009sobretudo,\u2009ambicionam\u2009buscar\u2009
as\u2009 causas\u2009no\u2009 interior\u2009do\u2009 indivíduo,\u2009 a\u2009doença\u2009 será\u2009definida\u2009como\u2009alguma\u2009coisa\u2009
interna,\u2009ligada\u2009ao\u2009núcleo\u2009mais\u2009profundo\u2009da\u2009pessoa.\u2009O\u2009segredo\u2009aqui\u2009desempenha\u2009
então\u2009plenamente\u2009seu\u2009papel;\u2009ele\u2009define\u2009simultaneamente\u2009o\u2009acesso\u2009e\u2009o\u2009conteúdo,\u2009
ele\u2009atualiza\u2009a\u2009interioridade\u2009e\u2009lhe\u2009dá\u2009consistência.\u2009O\u2009invisível\u2009que\u2009faz\u2009agir\u2009não\u2009está\u2009
mais\u2009alhures,\u2009ele\u2009está\u2009agora\u2009no\u2009interior\u2009das\u2009pessoas,\u2009aguardando\u2009visibilidade.
Certamente,\u2009podemos\u2009nos\u2009referir\u2009a\u2009essa\u2009prática\u2009e\u2009encontrar,\u2009agora,\u2009o\u2009senti-
do\u2009da\u2009análise\u2009conduzida\u2009por\u2009Ellenberger\u2009(1995)\u2009quando\u2009retoma\u2009a\u2009longa\u2009história\u2009
das\u2009curas\u2009dos\u2009segredos\u2009patogênicos,\u2009na\u2009 tradição\u2009cristã.\u2009Dessa\u2009 forma,\u2009os\u2009 rituais\u2009
de\u2009confissão\u2009da\u2009religião\u2009católica,\u2009além\u2009do\u2009caráter\u2009essencialmente\u2009religioso,\u2009eram\u2009
considerados\u2009como\u2009podendo\u2009algumas\u2009vezes\u2009trazer\u2009a\u2009cura\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009doença\u2009física\u2009ou\u2009
mental.\u2009Antes\u2009disso,\u2009afirma\u2009Ellenberger\u2009(1995,\u2009p.\u2009184),\u2009formas\u2009do\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009chama\u2009
\u201cPsicoterapias\u2009primitivas\u201d\u2009consideravam\u2009a\u2009confissão\u2009de\u2009 faltas\u2009cometidas\u2009como\u2009
Leitura\u2009etnopsicológica\u2009do\u2009segredo
Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1,\u2009 p.\u2009 5-28,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 9
um\u2009procedimento\u2009mágico\u2009 capaz\u2009 de\u2009 curar\u2009 as\u2009 doenças.\u2009 Ele\u2009 encontra\u2009 isso\u2009 igual-
mente\u2009em\u2009numerosos\u2009testemunhos\u2009nas\u2009civilizações\u2009antigas,\u2009indo\u2009dos\u2009Astecas\u2009aos\u2009
povos da Mesopotâmia. 
Poderemos\u2009 certamente\u2009 questionar\u2009 a\u2009 maneira\u2009 como\u2009 Ellenberger\u2009 (1995)\u2009
revisita\u2009a\u2009história\u2009quando\u2009ele\u2009 traduz\u2009a\u2009 ligação\u2009entre\u2009erro\u2009e\u2009desordem\u2009em\u2009outra\u2009
articulação\u2009que\u2009assume\u2009o\u2009fato\u2009que\u2009a\u2009confissão\u2009de\u2009um\u2009segredo\u2009(por\u2009conseguinte\u2009
patogênico),\u2009o\u2009erro,\u2009constitui\u2009em\u2009si\u2009\u201co\u201d\u2009processo\u2009de\u2009cura.\u2009E\u2009poderíamos,\u2009portanto,\u2009
perguntar\u2009se\u2009essa\u2009leitura\u2009não\u2009é\u2009justamente\u2009aquela\u2009herdeira\u2009dessa\u2009forma\u2009de\u2009ideo-
logia,\u2009diagnosticada\u2009por\u2009Foucault\u2009(1976),\u2009a\u2009qual\u2009de\u2009um\u2009lado,\u2009entende\u2009a\u2009confissão\u2009
como\u2009a\u2009forma\u2009mais\u2009altamente\u2009valorizada\u2009por\u2009produzir\u2009a\u2009verdade\u2009no\u2009Ocidente,\u2009e,\u2009
de\u2009outro,\u2009liga\u2009em\u2009uma\u2009rede\u2009de\u2009equivalência\u2009verdade\u2009e\u2009salvação.2\u2009Podemos,\u2009além\u2009
disso,\u2009à\u2009luz\u2009dessa\u2009crítica,\u2009compreender\u2009por\u2009que\u2009o\u2009caso\u2009de\u2009Achille\u2009parece\u2009tão\u2009exem-
plar\u2009na\u2009análise\u2009que\u2009Ellenberger\u2009conduz:\u2009se\u2009aí\u2009se\u2009encontra,\u2009com\u2009efeito,\u2009um\u2009erro,\u2009
um\u2009segredo\u2009opaco\u2009ao\u2009próprio\u2009sujeito,\u2009uma\u2009confissão\u2009que\u2009produz\u2009uma\u2009verdade\u2009até\u2009
então\u2009escondida,\u2009e\u2009uma\u2009cura\u2009que\u2009assinala\u2009o\u2009abandono,\u2009pelo\u2009sujeito,\u2009das\u2009ilusões\u2009
que\u2009impediam\u2009essa\u2009última\u2009(a\u2009crença\u2009na\u2009possessão).\u2009
Mas\u2009há\u2009uma\u2009outra\u2009ligação,\u2009naquilo\u2009que\u2009propõe\u2009a\u2009leitura\u2009do\u2009autor,\u2009que\u2009me\u2009
parece\u2009dever\u2009reter\u2009nossa\u2009atenção:\u2009aquela\u2009entre\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009do\u2009paciente\u2009e\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009
que\u2009liga\u2009o\u2009profissional.\u2009A\u2009cura\u2009do\u2009segredo,\u2009explica\u2009Ellenberger\u2009(1995,\u2009p.\u2009203),\u2009se\u2009
faz\u2009apenas\u2009no\u2009segredo:\u2009trata-se,\u2009dito\u2009de\u2009outra\u2009forma\u2009e\u2009de\u2009acordo\u2009com\u2009os\u2009termos\u2009
próprios\u2009do\u2009autor\u2009de\u2009\u201ctratar\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009pelo\u2009segredo\u201d.
Consideramos\u2009geralmente\u2009que\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009profissional\u2009se\u2009constitui\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009
garantia\u2009que\u2009protege\u2009o\u2009paciente,\u2009uma\u2009condição\u2009que,\u2009embora\u2009assegurada\u2009desde\u2009o\u2009
início\u2009no\u2009contrato,\u2009atua\u2009no\u2009a posteriori\u2009da\u2009revelação.\u2009Inscrita\u2009no\u2009código\u2009da\u2009deonto-
logia,\u2009ela\u2009se\u2009traduz\u2009em\u2009termos\u2009de\u2009\u201cnão\u2009divulgação\u201d.\u2009Falando\u2009mais\u2009simplesmente,\u2009
tudo\u2009acontece\u2009em\u2009uma\u2009relação\u2009que\u2009poderíamos\u2009grosseiramente\u2009qualificar\u2009de\u2009causa\u2009
e\u2009efeito:\u2009porque\u2009o\u2009paciente\u2009revela\u2009coisas\u2009secretas,\u2009o\u2009terapeuta\u2009se\u2009compromete\u2009a\u2009tra-
balhar\u2009no\u2009segredo.\u2009É\u2009uma\u2009tradução\u2009possível\u2009desse\u2009\u201ctratar\u2009o\u2009segredo\u2009pelo\u2009segredo\u201d.\u2009
Ora\u2009uma\u2009outra\u2009leitura\u2009se\u2009demonstra\u2009igualmente\u2009pertinente,\u2009a\u2009qual\u2009ao\u2009preço\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009
pequena\u2009diferença,\u2009inverte\u2009essa\u2009relação\u2009de\u2009causa\u2009e\u2009efeito:\u2009é\u2009porque\u2009o\u2009dispositivo\u2009se\u2009
constrói\u2009como\u2009um\u2009dispositivo\u2009(de)\u2009segredo\u2009que\u2009o\u2009paciente\u2009é\u2009conduzido\u2009a\u2009privile-
giar\u2009a\u2009produção\u2009de\u2009segredos.\u2009O\u2009segredo\u2009torna-se\u2009portanto\u2009não\u2009mais\u2009uma\u2009caracterís-
tica\u2009supletiva\u2009do\u2009dispositivo,\u2009não\u2009mais\u2009uma\u2009garantia\u2009que\u2009protege\u2009o\u2009paciente,\u2009mas\u2009
uma\u2009técnica\u2009particular\u2009que\u2009visa\u2009a\u2009construir\u2009um\u2009processo\u2009específico.
Se\u2009aceitarmos\u2009essa\u2009tradução,\u2009a\u2009questão\u2009do\u2009segredo\u2009muda\u2009de\u2009registro:\u2009não\u2009se\u2009
trata\u2009mais\u2009de\u2009saber\u2009o\u2009que\u2009é\u2009um\u2009segredo,\u2009de\u2009compreender\u2009a\u2009essência,\u2009a\u2009história\u2009ou\u2009
a\u2009função,\u2009mas\u2009de\u2009explorar\u2009de\u2009maneira\u2009muito\u2009pragmática\u2009\u201co\u2009que\u2009faz\u2009o\u2009segredo\u201d,\u2009e\u2009
o\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009faz\u2009fazer\u2009(LUTZ,\u20092004,\u2009p.\u200968).3\u2009Não\u2009o\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009faz\u2009calar,\u2009mas\u2009o\u2009que\u2009faz\u2009
falar,\u2009não\u2009mais\u2009o\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009autoriza\u2009(ou\u2009o\u2009que\u2009interdita),\u2009mas\u2009o\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009cria.\u2009Não\u2009se\u2009
trata\u2009mais\u2009de\u2009considerar\u2009como\u2009um\u2009\u201cdever\u201d\u2009inscrito\u2009em\u2009um\u2009código\u2009(e\u2009se\u2009há\u2009dever,\u2009
ele\u2009pesa\u2009no\u2009momento\u2009tanto\u2009quanto\u2009sobre\u2009o\u2009paciente),\u2009mas\u2009como\u2009um\u2009aspecto\u2009da\u2009
técnica\u2009que\u2009visa\u2009transformar\u2009as\u2009pessoas\u2009segundo\u2009uma\u2009teoria.\u2009Trata-se\u2009de\u2009questio-
Vinciane Despret
10\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal: