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such as United Nations peacekeeping operations, to secure 
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both today and in the future. China should exchange information and promote 
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Africa.
In order to manage the growing tensions resulting from the closer economic 
relationship between China and Africa, China must increase the frequency and 
depth of consultations both with African nations and other nations with inter-
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help to reduce tensions resulting from competition for energy resources in Africa 
by building mutual trust in relations with other emerging countries (India and 
Brazil, for example), the European Union nations, the Group of Eight powers 
and international organizations. China should also initiate dialogue with a view 
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China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Policy and Challenges
86
search and development of alternative energy sources.
China’s aid program will also require cooperation with other aid donors such 
that resources are utilized in the most effective way possible and for the maxi-
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opment related to AIDS and malaria control also provides broad prospects for 
medical cooperation and coordination between China and the United States or 
European countries, in Africa.83 In order to achieve this, reliable mechanisms for 
collaboration based on mutual trust, should make a priority to help Africa.84
Sino-African cooperation has played a positive and multifaceted role in Af-
rica. However, China’s expanded presence in Africa brings new challenges for 
China’s policies on the continent. China’s policies will naturally lag behind the 
rapidly evolving economic, social and security environment in Africa and China 
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lenges, China will never waver in its principles of treating Africa with equality, 
respect and mutual development.
Notes
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1 Segal, Gerald. “China and Africa,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, Vol. 519 No.1 (January 1992) p.126. 
2 “CSIS Prospectus: Opening a Sino-U.S. Dialogue on Africa, 2003;” Muekalia, Domingos 
Jardo, “Africa and China’s Strategic Partnership,” African Security Review, Vol. 13 No. 1 
(2004) p.8.
3 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, China’s African Policy, 
published in January 2006.
4 Duyvendad, J. J. L., China’s Discovery of Africa��/RQGRQ��������)LOHVL��7HREDOGR��China and 
Africa in the Middle Ages, Frank Cass Publisher, 1972; Snow, Philip. The Star Raft: China’s 
Encounter with Africa, (London: 1988); Wenkuan,M. and M. Fanren, The Discovery of Ancient 
China in Africa���%HLMLQJ��)RUELGGHQ�&LW\�3UHVV���������)XZHL��6KHQ��China and Africa��%HLMLQJ��
�7KH�&RPPHUFLDO�3UHVV��������=KRXFKDQJ��$��DQG�0��7DR��The History of the Relations between 
China and Africa. (Shanghai: East China Normal UP, 1996); Anshan, Li The History of Chinese 
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Li Anshan
87
in Africa���%HLMLQJ��&KLQHVH�2YHUVHDV�3XEOLVKLQJ�+RXVH����������)RU�&KLQHVH�XQGHUVWDQGLQJ�
DQG�VWXG\�RI�$IULFD��VHH�$QVKDQ�/L��´$IULFDQ�6WXGLHV�LQ�&KLQD�LQ�WKH�7ZHQWLHWK�&HQWXU\��
A Historiographical Survey,” African Studies Review, Vol. 48 No. 1 (April 2005) pp.59-87.
5 Ross. Robert (ed.), China, the United States, and the Soviet Union: Tripolarity and Policy Making 
in the Cold War, (New York, 1993) pp.11-61.
6 Selection of Mao Zedong’s Thought of Foreign Affairs��HG��E\�7KH�3DUW\�/LWHUDWXUH�5HVHDUFK�
Center of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the Ministry of Foreign 
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416-20, 463-7, 490-2, 497-502, 526-8, 587-8, 600-1. 
7 Qu Xing, Fifty Years of the Foreign Affairs of China, (Jiangsu Renmin Press, 2000) pp.375-
376.
8 Congolese Labor Party asked China Communist Party (CCP) to build inter-party 
UHODWLRQV�WR�SURPRWH�FRRSHUDWLRQ�LQ������������DQG�������7KH�&&3�UHIXVHG�IRU�WKH�UHDVRQ�
that it was not a communist party. Partido Frelimo had been in contact with the CCP 
and its Chair had visited China many times. He also proposed to build inter-party 
relations, but the CCP refused for ideological reasons. Later Partido Frelimo invited the 
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to develop normally until 1981.
9����&RUQHOLVVHQ��6��DQG�,��7D\ORU��´7KH�SROLWLFDO�HFRQRP\�RI�&KLQD�DQG�-DSDQ·V�UHODWLRQVKLS�
with Africa: a comparative perspective,” 7KH�3DFLÀF�5HYLHZ, Vol. 13 No. 4 (2000) p.616; 
Brautigam, Deborah, Chinese Aid and African Development, Macmillan Press, 1998, pp. 175-
195.
10 Ibid
11 Ogunsanwo, Alaba, China’s Policy in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 1974) pp.180-
240; Barnouin B. and Y. Changgen, Chinese Foreign Policy during the Cultural Revolution, 
�/RQGRQ��������SS��������:DQJ��4LQPHL���´ 7KH�8S�DQG�'RZQV�LQ�6LQR�$IULFDQ�5HODWLRQV�µ�
/RQJ�;LDQJ\DQJ��´ 7KH�3UHOLPLQDU\�3UREH�WR�WKH�6LQR�$IULFD�5HODWLRQV�IURP������WR������µ�
in China and Africa ed. by Center for African Studies, Peking University, (2000) pp59-71, 
72-86.
12 Li Jiasong, (ed.), Big Events in the History of Foreign Affairs of People’s Republic of China Vol. 
��� �%HLMLQJ��:RUOG� $IIDLUV� 3UHVV�� ������ SS���������� +XDQJ� =KHQ�� ´3DYLQJ� WKH� 5RDG� RI�
Friendship to the Awakening Africa, Endless Longing,” in Endless Remembrance��7KH�3DUW\�
Literature Press, 1987) pp.364-373. 
13� � � �7KH�SURSRUWLRQ�RI�&KLQD·V�H[SHQVHV�IRU�IRUHLJQ�DLG�WR�ÀQDQFLDO�H[SHQVHV�LQFUHDVHG�
from 1970 to 1973, from 3.5 percent in 1970, to 5.1 percent in 1971, 6.65 percent in 1972, and 
to 7.2 percent in 1973. During this period, there were 66 countries that received China’s 
aid, the amount of which accounted for two-thirds of China’s total to countries of the 
7KLUG�:RUG��´6WXGLHV�RQ�)RUHLJQ�5HODWLRQV�IURP������WR������µ�China and the World, Issue 
5, (2005).
14 Fifty Years of Friendly Relations between China and Africa�� �%HLMLQJ��:RUOG�$IIDLUV�3UHVV��
2000).
15 Li Anshan, Studies on African Nationalism�� �%HLMLQJ��&KLQD� ,QWHUQDWLRQDO�5DGLR�3UHVV��
2004), pp. 291-300; Li Anshan, “Africa in the Perspective of Globalization: development, 
aid and cooperation,” West Asia and Africa, Issue 7, (2007). 
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Policy and Challenges
88
16 Yearbook of China’s Foreign Economic Relations And Trade 1994���%HLMLQJ��&KLQD�6RFLDO�3UHVV��
1994) p. 62.
17����/L�$QVKDQ��´2Q�WKH�$GMXVWPHQWV�DQG�&KDQJHV�RI�&KLQD·V�)RUHLJQ�3ROLF\�WR�$IULFD�µ�
West Asia and Africa, Issue 8, (2006).
18 �1DPHO\�� WKH�SULQFLSOH�RI� HTXDOLW\��PXWXDO�EHQHÀW�� HIÀFLHQF\��GLYHUVLW\�DQG�PXWXDO�
development, People’s Daily, Jan. 15, 1983.
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20 “CCP’s relations with Asian and Latin American parties are strengthened,” People’s 
Daily, Sept. 8, 1982.
21 Jiang Guanghua, Historical Recording of Visiting Foreign Parties��%HLMLQJ��:RUOG�$IIDLUV�
3UHVV��������SS������������������������/L�/LTLQJ��´ 7KH�+LVWRU\�DQG�&XUUHQW�6LWXDWLRQ�RI�6LQR�
African Communications,” in Western Asia and Africa���,VVXH�����������´7KH�SURÀWDEOH�WU\�
on deepening the Sino-African relations,” Modern World, (Issue 6, 2002); Zhong Weiyun, 
“Current situation of African parties and the communication between CCP and African 
parties,” China and Africa, ed. by Center for

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