Anshan_ChinaandAfrica
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Anshan_ChinaandAfrica


DisciplinaQuest Pol Internac da China13 materiais54 seguidores
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such as United Nations peacekeeping operations, to secure 
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both today and in the future. China should exchange information and promote 
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Africa.
In order to manage the growing tensions resulting from the closer economic 
relationship between China and Africa, China must increase the frequency and 
depth of consultations both with African nations and other nations with inter-
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help to reduce tensions resulting from competition for energy resources in Africa 
by building mutual trust in relations with other emerging countries (India and 
Brazil, for example), the European Union nations, the Group of Eight powers 
and international organizations. China should also initiate dialogue with a view 
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China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Policy and Challenges
86
search and development of alternative energy sources.
China\u2019s aid program will also require cooperation with other aid donors such 
that resources are utilized in the most effective way possible and for the maxi-
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opment related to AIDS and malaria control also provides broad prospects for 
medical cooperation and coordination between China and the United States or 
European countries, in Africa.83 In order to achieve this, reliable mechanisms for 
collaboration based on mutual trust, should make a priority to help Africa.84
Sino-African cooperation has played a positive and multifaceted role in Af-
rica. However, China\u2019s expanded presence in Africa brings new challenges for 
China\u2019s policies on the continent. China\u2019s policies will naturally lag behind the 
rapidly evolving economic, social and security environment in Africa and China 
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lenges, China will never waver in its principles of treating Africa with equality, 
respect and mutual development.
Notes
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Agency\ufffd\ufffd7RN\R\ufffd\ufffd-DSDQ\ufffd\ufffd
1 Segal, Gerald. \u201cChina and Africa,\u201d The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, Vol. 519 No.1 (January 1992) p.126. 
2 \u201cCSIS Prospectus: Opening a Sino-U.S. Dialogue on Africa, 2003;\u201d Muekalia, Domingos 
Jardo, \u201cAfrica and China\u2019s Strategic Partnership,\u201d African Security Review, Vol. 13 No. 1 
(2004) p.8.
3 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People\u2019s Republic of China, China\u2019s African Policy, 
published in January 2006.
4 Duyvendad, J. J. L., China\u2019s Discovery of Africa\ufffd\ufffd/RQGRQ\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd)LOHVL\ufffd\ufffd7HREDOGR\ufffd\ufffdChina and 
Africa in the Middle Ages, Frank Cass Publisher, 1972; Snow, Philip. The Star Raft: China\u2019s 
Encounter with Africa, (London: 1988); Wenkuan,M. and M. Fanren, The Discovery of Ancient 
China in Africa\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd)RUELGGHQ\ufffd&LW\\ufffd3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd)XZHL\ufffd\ufffd6KHQ\ufffd\ufffdChina and Africa\ufffd\ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd
\ufffd7KH\ufffd&RPPHUFLDO\ufffd3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd=KRXFKDQJ\ufffd\ufffd$\ufffd\ufffdDQG\ufffd0\ufffd\ufffd7DR\ufffd\ufffdThe History of the Relations between 
China and Africa. (Shanghai: East China Normal UP, 1996); Anshan, Li The History of Chinese 
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Li Anshan
87
in Africa\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffd2YHUVHDV\ufffd3XEOLVKLQJ\ufffd+RXVH\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd)RU\ufffd&KLQHVH\ufffdXQGHUVWDQGLQJ\ufffd
DQG\ufffdVWXG\\ufffdRI\ufffd$IULFD\ufffd\ufffdVHH\ufffd$QVKDQ\ufffd/L\ufffd\ufffd´$IULFDQ\ufffd6WXGLHV\ufffdLQ\ufffd&KLQD\ufffdLQ\ufffdWKH\ufffd7ZHQWLHWK\ufffd&HQWXU\\ufffd\ufffd
A Historiographical Survey,\u201d African Studies Review, Vol. 48 No. 1 (April 2005) pp.59-87.
5 Ross. Robert (ed.), China, the United States, and the Soviet Union: Tripolarity and Policy Making 
in the Cold War, (New York, 1993) pp.11-61.
6 Selection of Mao Zedong\u2019s Thought of Foreign Affairs\ufffd\ufffdHG\ufffd\ufffdE\\ufffd7KH\ufffd3DUW\\ufffd/LWHUDWXUH\ufffd5HVHDUFK\ufffd
Center of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the Ministry of Foreign 
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416-20, 463-7, 490-2, 497-502, 526-8, 587-8, 600-1. 
7 Qu Xing, Fifty Years of the Foreign Affairs of China, (Jiangsu Renmin Press, 2000) pp.375-
376.
8 Congolese Labor Party asked China Communist Party (CCP) to build inter-party 
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that it was not a communist party. Partido Frelimo had been in contact with the CCP 
and its Chair had visited China many times. He also proposed to build inter-party 
relations, but the CCP refused for ideological reasons. Later Partido Frelimo invited the 
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to develop normally until 1981.
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with Africa: a comparative perspective,\u201d 7KH\ufffd3DFLÀF\ufffd5HYLHZ, Vol. 13 No. 4 (2000) p.616; 
Brautigam, Deborah, Chinese Aid and African Development, Macmillan Press, 1998, pp. 175-
195.
10 Ibid
11 Ogunsanwo, Alaba, China\u2019s Policy in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 1974) pp.180-
240; Barnouin B. and Y. Changgen, Chinese Foreign Policy during the Cultural Revolution, 
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/RQJ\ufffd;LDQJ\DQJ\ufffd\ufffd´ 7KH\ufffd3UHOLPLQDU\\ufffd3UREH\ufffdWR\ufffdWKH\ufffd6LQR\ufffd$IULFD\ufffd5HODWLRQV\ufffdIURP\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdWR\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdµ\ufffd
in China and Africa ed. by Center for African Studies, Peking University, (2000) pp59-71, 
72-86.
12 Li Jiasong, (ed.), Big Events in the History of Foreign Affairs of People\u2019s Republic of China Vol. 
\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd:RUOG\ufffd $IIDLUV\ufffd 3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd SS\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd +XDQJ\ufffd =KHQ\ufffd\ufffd ´3DYLQJ\ufffd WKH\ufffd 5RDG\ufffd RI\ufffd
Friendship to the Awakening Africa, Endless Longing,\u201d in Endless Remembrance\ufffd\ufffd7KH\ufffd3DUW\\ufffd
Literature Press, 1987) pp.364-373. 
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from 1970 to 1973, from 3.5 percent in 1970, to 5.1 percent in 1971, 6.65 percent in 1972, and 
to 7.2 percent in 1973. During this period, there were 66 countries that received China\u2019s 
aid, the amount of which accounted for two-thirds of China\u2019s total to countries of the 
7KLUG\ufffd:RUG\ufffd\ufffd´6WXGLHV\ufffdRQ\ufffd)RUHLJQ\ufffd5HODWLRQV\ufffdIURP\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdWR\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdµ\ufffdChina and the World, Issue 
5, (2005).
14 Fifty Years of Friendly Relations between China and Africa\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd:RUOG\ufffd$IIDLUV\ufffd3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd
2000).
15 Li Anshan, Studies on African Nationalism\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd&KLQD\ufffd ,QWHUQDWLRQDO\ufffd5DGLR\ufffd3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd
2004), pp. 291-300; Li Anshan, \u201cAfrica in the Perspective of Globalization: development, 
aid and cooperation,\u201d West Asia and Africa, Issue 7, (2007). 
China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007
Policy and Challenges
88
16 Yearbook of China\u2019s Foreign Economic Relations And Trade 1994\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd&KLQD\ufffd6RFLDO\ufffd3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd
1994) p. 62.
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West Asia and Africa, Issue 8, (2006).
18 \ufffd1DPHO\\ufffd\ufffd WKH\ufffdSULQFLSOH\ufffdRI\ufffd HTXDOLW\\ufffd\ufffdPXWXDO\ufffdEHQHÀW\ufffd\ufffd HIÀFLHQF\\ufffd\ufffdGLYHUVLW\\ufffdDQG\ufffdPXWXDO\ufffd
development, People\u2019s Daily, Jan. 15, 1983.
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VKL]KHQJ\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdKWPO\ufffd
20 \u201cCCP\u2019s relations with Asian and Latin American parties are strengthened,\u201d People\u2019s 
Daily, Sept. 8, 1982.
21 Jiang Guanghua, Historical Recording of Visiting Foreign Parties\ufffd\ufffd%HLMLQJ\ufffd\ufffd:RUOG\ufffd$IIDLUV\ufffd
3UHVV\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdSS\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd/L\ufffd/LTLQJ\ufffd\ufffd´ 7KH\ufffd+LVWRU\\ufffdDQG\ufffd&XUUHQW\ufffd6LWXDWLRQ\ufffdRI\ufffd6LQR\ufffd
African Communications,\u201d in Western Asia and Africa\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd,VVXH\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd´7KH\ufffdSURÀWDEOH\ufffdWU\\ufffd
on deepening the Sino-African relations,\u201d Modern World, (Issue 6, 2002); Zhong Weiyun, 
\u201cCurrent situation of African parties and the communication between CCP and African 
parties,\u201d China and Africa, ed. by Center for