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Cap 17

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adhesive region at 
posterior tip of cell; oral ciliature as one preoral 
and two circumoral kinetofragments in a deep 
oral cavity ; macronucleus, juxtaposed heteromer-
ous, elongate ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole (?); cytoproct, present; feeding 
on organic detritus and sometimes epithelial cells 
of host; in marine habitats, known so far only 
as ectosymbionts of in the nasal cavities of ceta-
ceans, and collected from the mucus discharged 
from the blowholes of living or dead hosts ; two 
 – Kyaroikeus Sniezek, Coats, & Small, 1995 
 – Planilamina Ma, Overstreet, Sniezek, Solangi, 
& Coats, 2006 *
 Family PLESIOTRICHOPIDAE Deroux, 1976 
 Size, small to medium; shape, ovoid to elongate, 
somewhat dorsoventrally compressed; free-swim-
ming, but may temporarily attach by podial fila-
ment; somatic ciliation with right ventral kineties 
arcing preorally to left, and a field of left ventral 
kineties abutting at a preoral suture system; oral 
ciliature varying from a preoral and two circumoral 
kinetofragments to multiple circumoral kinetof-
ragments; ventral adhesive region, glandular, 
non-ciliated (except in Atelepithites ), but may 
secrete podial filament ; macronucleus, juxtaposed 
heteromerous, ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, may be multiple; cytoproct 
(?); feeding on bacteria and microalgae; in marine 
habitats; five genera. 
 – Atelepithites Deroux, 1976 
 – Parachilodonella Dragesco, 1966 
 – Pithites Deroux & Dragesco, 1968 
 – Plesiotrichopus Fauré-Fremiet, 1965 
 – Trochochilodon Deroux, 1976 
Incertae sedis in Subclass Cyrtophoria 
 – Dysterioides Matthes, 1950 
 Subclass Chonotrichia Wallengren, 1895 
 (syns. Phyllopharyngidea p.p ., Scaiotricha p.p .) 
 Size, small to medium; shape, often vase-shaped, 
with pellicle quite rigid and frequently adorned with 
collar, lobes, and/or spines; sessile and sedentary, 
except as dispersive larval forms; posterior adhe-
sive organelle or podite produces stalk or peduncle, 
always non-contractile; somatic kineties only on 
walls of perioral funnel or cone-shaped region, 
which may be flared, or compressed ; somatic
kineties in two fields – a right field whose kine-
ties are typically arrayed parallel to the margin 
of the cone and a left field whose kineties are 
typically arranged obliquely to the margin of 
the cone ; oral cilia, apparently absent or only as 
several inverted kineties next to the cytostome; 
cytopharyngeal apparatus with phyllae, but no 
nematodesmata ; reproduction solely by unequal 
division or budding, within a crypt or “marsupium” 
in one order; polygemmy may occur on death of 
host; migratory larval forms or tomites bear an 
adhesive gland posteriorly and two fields of cilia 
on deep concave ventral surface or gutter, remi-
niscent of their putative ancestry among the cyr-
tophorine-like forms ; conjugants, of unequal size, 
invariably undergoing total fusion; macronucleus, 
heteromerous; contractile vacuoles, when present, 
connected to body surface by an excretory canal; 
cytoproct, may be present; microphagous, typically 
feeding on bacteria and food particles derived from 
host; in marine, brackish, and freshwater habitats 
as ectosymbionts on the gills, mouthparts, and/or 
other appendages of crustaceans , principally amphi-
pods , isopods , and copepods , but also decapods , 
 nebaliids , and others, with one species attaching to 
a marine alga; two orders. 
NOTE : The monograph of Jankowski (1973b) 
still stands as the major modern treatise on this 
group. Batisse (1994a) has provided a revision, 
including a new order (i.e. Order Chilodochonida ), 
which we do not recognize. Molecular genetic 
evidence may justify its distinctness. We have 
maintained the divisions based on the kind of bud-
ding (e.g., external budding and internal budding) 
as proposed by Jankowski (1973b). 
384 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
 Order Exogemmida Jankowski, 1972 
 (syn. Chilodochonida p.p ., Lobochonina p.p., 
Spirochonina p.p.)
 Shape, typically long and cylindrical, and typi-
cally with a well-developed collar (except Family 
 Chilodochonidae ); spines absent or poorly devel-
oped; usual attachment by undistinguished pedun-
cle (rather than “true” stalk, except in Family 
 Chilodochonidae ); a few to several tomites or 
buds produced by external budding; macronu-
cleus, heteromerous, with orthomere directed 
apically towards funnel ; six families. 
 Family CHILODOCHONIDAE Wallengren, 1895 
 Size, medium; shape, ovoid or pyriform, mas-
sive, not flattened; apical end large, cylindrical, 
flaring slightly; collar indistinct or absent ; no 
spines; sessile; cortex, markedly thickened; long,
wide, solid stalk, rather than peduncle typical of 
order ; somatic ciliature as two subparallel ciliary 
fields; oral ciliature as a circumoral kinety border-
ing the left side of the cytostome; macronucleus, 
heteromerous, elongate; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, absent; cytoproct, absent; feed-
ing (?); in marine habitats on the mouthparts of 
 decapods in littoral and sublittoral habitats; two 
 – Chilodochona Wallengren, 1895 
 – Vasichona Jankowski, 1972 
 Family FILICHONIDAE Jankowski, 1973 
 Size, medium; shape, cylindrical or bottle-
shaped, not flattened, with simple apical end, 
conical and unadorned; sessile; collar distinct and 
markedly elongate, with spine-like processes on 
hypocollar between collar and body ; peduncle, 
low and broad; macronucleus, heteromerous, ellip-
soid; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
absent; cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); in marine 
habitats on isopods ; two genera. 
 – Aurichona Jankowsi, 1973 
 – Filichona Jankowski, 1973 
 Family HELIOCHONIDAE Jankowski, 1972 
 Size, small to medium; shape, bottle-like, elon-
gate to sac-like, not flattened; sessile; cone a simple 
funnel that may have spines of different structure 
on each side of cone ; collar, distinct, usually short; 
somatic ciliature as a left field and larger right 
field, which is subdivided into an upper horizon-
tal component of usually <6 kineties and a lower 
oblique component ; peduncle, short; macronucleus, 
heteromerous, ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; con-
tractile vacuole, may be present; cytoproct, absent; 
feeding (?); in marine or brackish habitats, particu-
larly on gammarid amphipods ; two genera. 
 – Heliochona Plate, 1889 
 – Heterochona Jankowski, 1972 
 Family LOBOCHONIDAE Jankowski, 1967 
 Size, medium; shape, elongate, bottle-like, not 
flattened; sessile; apical end simple, conical, 
slightly flared, often with two dorsal lobes; cone 
a simple funnel ; collar, distinct; ciliation as a left 
field and a larger right field, which is divided, 
having >6 kineties in each part ; peduncle, short, 
distinct; macronucleus, heteromerous, ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, absent; 
cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); only in marine or 
brackish habitats – but with very wide distribution 
– on isopods and amphipods , with one unique spe-
cies on an alga; five genera. 
 – Lobochona Dons, 1941 
 – Oenophorachona Matsudo & Mohr, 1968 
 – Physochona Batisse & Crumeyrolle, 1988 
 – Segmentochona Jankowski, 1989 
 – Toxochona Jankowski, 1972 
 Family PHYLLOCHONIDAE Jankowski, 1972 
 Size, small; shape, leaf-like, not elongate, 
flattened dorsoventrally, contorted; cone with 
leaf-shaped preoral outgrowths ; collar absent; 
ciliation as two fields; sessile; peduncle in form 
of wide disc; macronucleus, heteromerous, mas-
sive ; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
absent; cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); in marine 
habitats on isopods ; one genus. 
 – Phyllochona Jankowski, 1972 
 Family SPIROCHONIDAE Stein, 1854 
 Size, small to medium; shape, vase-like, elon-
gate, typically not flattened; apical end flared, 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 385
with dorsal wall multiply-spiraled