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1978
 Size, small to medium; trophont, sac-like, not 
flattened; stalk, massive with apical widening ; 
tentacles, bottle-like, arranged in two apical 
rows ; macronucleus, ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, present; in freshwater 
habitats as ectocommensals on crustaceans from 
Lake Baikal; one genus. 
 – Dactylostoma Jankowski, 1967 
 Family DENDROSOMATIDAE Fraipont, 1878 
 (syns. Dendrosomidae , Stylophryidae ) 
 Size, medium to large; trophont, pyriform to 
truncate to branching; stalkless, with rare excep-
tion, but rather attached to the substratum by 
broad part of body or protuberance; indeterminate
growth ; aloricate, occasionally planktonic; tenta-
cles, capitate, evenly distributed or arranged in 
fascicles at ends of conspicuous finger-like proc-
esses, sometimes highly specialized or greatly 
reduced in number ; budding, often multiple; 
swarmers, small, with transverse band of kineties; 
macronucleus, globular to ramified; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, multiple throughout 
body; in brackish and freshwater habitats, free-liv-
ing in the periphyton, some as ectosymbionts on 
 turtles , others endosymbiotic, and still others as 
parasites on crustacean gills; four genera. 
 – Astrophrya Awerintzew, 1904 (subj. syn. 
Dendrosoma ) 
 – Dendrosoma Ehrenberg, 1837 
 – Gorgonosoma Swarczewsky, 1928 (subj. syn. 
Dendrosoma ) 
 – Stylophrya Swarczewsky, 1928 
 Family ENDOSPHAERIDAE Jankowski in 
Corliss, 1979 
 (syn. Endospaeriidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; trophonts, ovoid to sphe-
roid; without stalk; tentacles, not present ; swarm-
ers, spheroid to ellipsoid, with several ‘transverse’ 
kineties; swarmers, produced by monogemmy 
or polygemmy; macronucleus, globular to ellip-
soid; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
present; in marine and freshwater habitats solely 
as endoparasites of cells and tissues of other 
organisms, such as ciliates (e.g., folliculinids, 
peritrichs, and even other suctoria), turbellar-
ians , and bivalve molluscs ; two genera. 
 – Acoelophthirius Jankowski in Dovgal, 2002 *
 – Endosphaera Engelmann, 1876 
 Family ERASTOPHRYIDAE Jankowski, 1978 
 Size, small to medium; trophonts, ovoid to 
irregular, attaching to peritrich host by arm-
like appendages called the cinctum or hemi-
cinctum ; tentacles, capitate, evenly distributed 
on body surface or arranged in fascicles on short 
actinophores; macronucleus, ellipsoid to ribbon-
like; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
present; in freshwater habitats as hypercommen-
sals on peritrich ectosymbionts of fishes ; two 
genera.
 – Chenophrya Dovgal, 2002 *
 – Erastophrya Fauré-Fremiet, 1943 
 Family PSEUDOGEMMIDAE Jankowski, 1978 
 Size, small; trophonts, globular to ellipsoid; lori-
cate; tentacles, rod-like, one to several, serving 
both for feeding and attachment ; macronucleus, 
globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; con-
tractile vacuole, present; in marine and freshwater 
habitats as parasites of other ciliates, such as fol-
liculinids and suctorians ; two genera. 
 – Pottsiocles Corliss, 1960 
 – Pseudogemma Collin, 1909 
 Family RHYNCHETIDAE Jankowski, 1978 
 (syn. Riftidae ) 
 Size, small; trophont, pyriform to ovoid, attach-
ing to substrate by basal body surface or protuber-
ance; tentacles, agile, very flexible ; macronucleus, 
globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus (?); contractile 
vacuole, present; in freshwater habitats as parasites 
on crustaceans ; two genera. 
 – Rhyncheta Zenker, 1866 
 – Riftus Jankowski, 1981 (subj. syn. Tokophrya ) 
 Family SOLENOPHRYIDAE Jankowski, 1981 
 Size, small; trophont, spheroid to ovoid, attach-
ing to substrate by basal surface of the lorica; 
394 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
 stalkless; tentacles, capitate ; macronucleus, ellip-
soid; micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, 
present; in brackish and freshwater habitats in 
periphyton or in plankton; two genera. 
 – Solenophrya Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 
 – Sphaeracineta Jankowski, 1987 [not listed in 
Aescht]
 Family TOKOPHRYIDAE Jankowski in Small & 
Lynn, 1985 
 Size, small to medium; trophonts, ovoid, cylin-
drical or triangular-shaped, often laterally flat-
tened; without lorica ; stalked, of varying length; 
tentacles, capitate, typically in two or rarely more 
fascicles; swarmers, ovoid with oblique somatic 
kineties; macronucleus, globular to ribbon-like; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; 
in marine and freshwater habitats, both free-living 
and as ectocommensals on copepods , amphipods , 
and even other ciliates (e.g., stalk of peritrichs ); 
seven genera. 
 – Lecanodiscus Jankowski, 1973 
 – Listarcon Jankowski, 1982 
 – Parastylophrya Jankowski, 1978 
 – Pelagacineta Jankowski, 1978 
 – Talizona Jankowski, 1981 
 – Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889 
 – Tokophryopsis Swarczewsky, 1928 
 Family TRICHOPHRYIDAE Fraipont, 1878 
 (syns. Actinobranchiidae , Caprinianidae [for 
 Capriniidae ], Marinectidae , Mucophryidae , 
 Peltacinetidae , Staurophryidae ) 
 Size, small; trophont, flattened, attached to 
substratum by broad part of body or a body 
protuberance ; stalkless; some loricate forms, 
mainly with a mucous lorica; tentacles, capitate 
or rod-like, may be in rows or fascicles, rarely 
on poorly developed actinophores; determinate
growth; swarmer, discoid, flattened, with equa-
torial kineties ; macronucleus, ellipsoid, ribbon-
like or ramified; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, may be multiple; in marine and freshwater 
habitats as ectocommensals on aquatic inverte-
brates and vertebrates, with some found on gills of 
 fishes ; eleven genera. 
 – Anarma Jankowski, 1981 (subj. syn. Discophrya ) 
 – Brachyosoma Batisse, 1975 
 – Capriniana Strand, 1928 (subj. syn. Trichophrya ) 
 – Marinecta Jankowski, 1973 
 – Mucophrya Gajewskaja, 1928 
 – Paramucophrya Chen, Song, & Hu, 2005 *
 – Peltacineta Jankowski, 1978 (subj. syn. 
Trichophrya ) 
 – Rhizobranchium Jankowski, 1981 
 – Staurophrya Zacharias, 1893 
 – Tetraedrophrya Zykoff in Dovgal, 2002 *
 – Trichophrya Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 
 Order Evaginogenida Jankowski, 1978 
 (syns. Cyathodiniida , Cyathomorphida , Cyat-
homorphina , Dendrocometida , Dendrocometina , 
 Discophryida , Discophryina , Heliophryida , Eva-
ginogenea , Evaginogenia , Inversogenea , Neotenea 
p.p ., Stylocometina p.p ., Tripanococcina p.p .) 
 Size, small to large; trophonts, sessile; with 
or without stalk, occasionally in lorica; tentacles 
either scattered singly or in fascicles at the ends of 
sometimes massive arms or trunks; kinetosomes
of larval kineties first develop on “parental” 
surface of a brood pouch, but cytokinesis of a 
single swarmer completed exogenously after full 
emergence of the “everted” bud (i.e., evaginative 
budding) ; swarmer, often ellipsoidal, flattened; 
in marine and freshwater habitats, widespread, 
especially as symphorionts, with species of one 
endosymbiotic genus showing a strikingly aberrant 
life cycle; 11 families. 
 Family COMETODENDRIDAE Jankowski, 1978 
 Size, small to large; trophont, vase-like, 
branched, lifted off substrate but attached to it by 
a basal protuberance ; tentacles, ramified ; macro-
nucleus, globular; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, present; in freshwater habitats as ectocom-
mensals on gammarid amphipods ; one genus. 
 – Cometodendron Swarczewsky, 1928 
 Family CYATHODINIIDAE da Cuhna, 1914 
 (syn. Enterophryidae p.p .) 
 Size, small; trophont, pyriform to ovoid; stalk-
less; adult stage fleeting, but typically produces 
two ciliated buds simultaneously; larval form 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 395
as trophont, pyriform in shape, persisting as 
the dominant stage in the life cycle; swarmers 
retaining extensive ciliature and having ten-
tacles, called endosprits, which are reduced 
to a series of short