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but a few found in 
brackish habitats; no fossil species; 24 genera. 
 – Albatrossiella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Amphorellopsis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Amphorides Strand, 1928 
 – Brandtiella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Bursaopsis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Buschiella Corliss, 1960 
 – Canthariella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Clevea Balech, 1948 
 – Dadayiella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Daturella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 [nomen 
dubium]
 – Epicranella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Eutintinnus Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 
 – Funnela Li & Zhang, 2006 * (fossil) 
 – Odontophorella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Ormosella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Proamphorella Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 
 – Prostelidiella Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 
 – Rhabdosella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Salpingacantha Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Salpingella Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Salpingelloides Campbell, 1942 
 – Steenstrupiella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Stelidiella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Tintinnus Schrank, 1803 
 Family TINTINNIDIIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 (syn. Tintinnididae ) 
 Size, small to large; lorica, tubular or flaring, 
with aboral end open or closed, may be attached 
to the substrate; lorica collar, rarely visible; lorica
wall soft, gelatinous, with agglomerated par-
ticles ; in marine, brackish, and (occasionally) 
freshwater habitats; no fossil species known; three 
genera.
 – Leprotintinnus Jörgensen, 1900 
 – Membranicola Foissner, Berger, & Schaumburg, 
1999
 – Tintinnidium Kent, 1881 
 Family UNDELLIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 Size, small to medium; loricae goblet- or urn-
shaped, occasionally elongate; lorica oral rim 
sometimes with suboral ledge and perhaps an inner 
collar; lorica wall, hyaline, conspicuously thick, 
obviously trilaminate, with obvious inner and 
outer layers ; lorica surface, smooth, and some-
times with annuli; in marine habitats, eupelagic; no 
fossil species; seven genera and one genus incertae
sedis . 
 – Amplectella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Amplectellopsis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Cricundella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Micrundella Loeblich & Tappan, 1968 
 – Proplectella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Undella Daday, 1887 
 – Undellopsis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
Incertae sedis in Family Undellidae 
 – Rotundocylis Kufferath, 1952 [ nomen nudum ] 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 355
 Family XYSTONELLIDAE Kofoid & Campbell, 
1929
 (syn. Xistonellidae ) 
 Size, medium to large; lorica elongate, chalice-
shaped with aboral end long and narrow, sometimes 
with pedicel; lorica oral rim, usually denticulate; 
lorica wall, hyaline, trilaminate, reticulate, show-
ing an irregular and conspicuous meshwork 
between lorica wall layers, with inconspicuous, 
thin wall material separating polygons ; in marine 
habitats, mainly eupelagic; a few fossil forms 
known; five genera and one genus incertae sedis . 
 – Parafavella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (fossil) 
 – Parundella Jörgensen, 1924 
 – Spiroxystonella Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 
 – Xystonella Brandt, 1906 
 – Xystonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924 
Incertae sedis in Family Xystonellidae 
 – Parafavelloides Deflandre & Deflandre, 1949 
ADDENDUM : The following families and 
included genera of fossil forms are listed here as 
belonging to the Order Tintinnida . Assignment to 
families that include contemporary genera has not 
been possible at this time. 
Incertae sedis in Order Tintinnida : unas-
signed genera – Aubertianella Szczechura, 1969, 
Daturellina Radoičić, 1959, Praecolomiella Borza, 
1979, Spirocystomellites Colom, 1988; Syringella
Paulmier, 1997 [not listed in Aescht; junior homo-
nym of anthozoan/poriferan], Tintinnoidella Elicki, 
1994; unassigned Family Berounkellidae Koshevoj, 
1987 with included genera Batiola Koshevoj, 
1987, Berounkella Koshevoj, 1987, Chervurt skella
Koshevoj, 1987, Kejvia Koshevoj, 1987, Olgella
Koshevoj, 1987, Ollella Aescht, 2001, Tundrella
Koshevoj, 1987, and Velavella Koshevoj, 1987; 
unassigned Family Cadosinidae Wanner, 1940 
with included genera Cadosina Wanner, 1940, 
Cadosinopsis Scheiber, 1967, and Crustocadosina
Rehanek, 1985; unassigned Family Calcisphaerulidae 
Bonet, 1956 with included genera Bonetcardiella
Dufour, 1968 and Calcisphaerula Bonet, 1956; 
unassigned Family Causiidae K oshevoj, 1987 with 
included genus Causella Aescht, 2001; and unas-
signed Family Stomiosphaeridae Wanner, 1940 with 
included genera Carpistomiosphaera Nowak, 1968, 
Colomisphaera Nowak, 1968, Committosphaera
Rehanek, 1985, Inocardion Masters & Scott, 1978, 
and Stomiosphaera Wanner, 1940. 
 Order Choreotrichida Small & Lynn, 1985 
 Size, small to large; shape, globular to ellip-
soid; free-swimming or not sessile, but may be 
temporarily attached to substratum; no lorica ; 
in marine and freshwater habitats, widespread, 
planktonic with some benthic and symbiotic spe-
cies; four suborders. 
 Suborder Leegaardiellina Laval-Peuto, Grain, & 
Deroux, 1994 
 Size, small to medium; shape, spheroid; free-
swimming; somatic kineties composed of dikinetids,
restricted to aboral half; serial oral polykinetids of 
the outer circle divided into an inner and outer 
part, with inner oral polykinetids, apparently 
clearly separated from outer oral polykinetids ; 
oral cavity with a set of internal oral polykinetids 
on the outer wall and paroral along the margin of 
the inner wall; macronuclei, two ovoid nodules; 
micronucleus, not observed; contractile vacuole, 
absent; cytoproct (?); feeding on microalgae and 
smaller protists; in marine habitats, planktonic; 
one family. 
 Family LEEGAARDIELLIDAE Lynn & 
Montagnes, 1988 
 With characters of the suborder; one genus. 
 – Leegaardiella Lynn & Montagnes, 1988 
 Suborder Lohmanniellina Laval-Peuto, Grain, & 
Deroux, 1994 
 Size, small; shape, spheroid; somatic kineties, 
short, posterior, possibly composed of monoki-
netids ; serial oral polykinetids of outer circle 
undivided; inner oral polykinetids, apparently as 
extensions of several outer oral polykinetids, but 
with a break between the outer and inner parts; 
macronucleus, curved, ovoid; micronucleus, not 
observed; contractile vacuole, absent; cytoproct 
(?); feeding on microalgae and smaller protists; 
marine plankton; one family. 
 Family LOHMANNIELLIDAE Montagnes & 
Lynn, 1991 
 With characters of the suborder; one genus. 
 – Lohmanniella Leegaard, 1915 
356 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
 Suborder Strobilidiina Small & Lynn, 1985 
 Size, small to medium; shape, spheroid to 
conoid; free-swimming, but some forms attached 
to substrates by mucous thread; somatic kine-
ties, one to several, usually not as long as the 
body, composed of monokinetids with a corti-
cal flap covering the bases of cilia and direct-
ing them to the cell’s left and underlain (when 
protargol-stained) by densely-stained mate-
rial ; somatic cilia, relatively short, typically 
<5 µm long; outer and inner oral polykinetids 
typical of the subclass; macronucleus, typically 
single, variably shaped from ellipsoid to an elon-
gate band; micronucleus, if observed, typically 
single; contractile vacuole, at least present in 
freshwater forms; cytoproct (?); feeding on bac-
teria, microalgae, and smaller protists; in marine 
and freshwater habitats, with some species com-
mensals of echinoids; one family. 
 Family STROBILIDIIDAE Kahl in Doflein & 
Reichenow, 1929 
 (syn. Torquatellidae ) 
 With characters of the suborder; three genera 
and two incertae sedis . 
 – Pelagostrobilidium Petz, Song, & Wilbert, 1995 
 – Rimostrombidium Jankowski, 1978 
 – Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1893 
Incertae sedis in Family Strobilidiidae 
 – Ciliospina Leegaard, 1915 [ nomen dubium ] 
 – Patronella Corliss, 1979 (subj. syn. 
Strombidium ) 
 Suborder Strombidinopsina Small & Lynn, 1985 
 Size, small to medium; shape, spheroid to conoid;

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