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ACLS Advanced Cardiac Life Support

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1 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Provider Handbook
By Dr. Karl Disque
Advanced Cardiac 
Life Support
- 2025 
Guidelines and 
2 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Copyright © 2021 Satori Continuum Publishing
All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication 
can be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database 
or retrieval system, without the prior consent of the publisher. 
Satori Continuum Publishing 
1810 E Sahara Ave. Suite 1507 
Las Vegas, NV 89104
Printed in the United States of America
Educational Service Disclaimer
This Provider Handbook is an educational service provided by Satori Continuum Publishing. Use of this 
service is governed by the terms and conditions provided below. Please read the statements below 
carefully before accessing or using the service. By accessing or using this service, you agree to be bound 
by all of the terms and conditions herein. 
The material contained in this Provider Handbook does not contain standards that are intended to be 
applied rigidly and explicitly followed in all cases. A health care professional’s judgment must remain 
central to the selection of diagnostic tests and therapy options of a specific patient’s medical condition. 
Ultimately, all liability associated with the utilization of any of the information presented here rests 
solely and completely with the health care provider utilizing the service.
Version 2021.01
3 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Introduction to ACLS . . . . . . . 5
The Initial Assessment . . . . . . . 6
Basic Life Support . . . . . . . 7
Initiating the Chain of Survival – 7
2020 BLS Guideline Changes – 8
BLS for Adults – 9
One-Rescuer Adult BLS/CPR
Two-Rescuer Adult BLS/CPR
Adult Mouth-to-Mask Ventilation
Adult Bag-Mask Ventilation in Two-Rescuer CPR
BLS for Children/Infants – 15
One-Rescuer Child BLS/CPR
One-Rescuer Infant BLS/CPR
Child/Infant Mouth-to-Mask Ventilation
Child/Infant Bag-Valve-Mask Ventilation in Two-Rescuer CPR
Self-Assessment for BLS – 20
Advanced Cardiac Life Support . . . . . . . 22
Normal Heart Anatomy and Physiology – 22
The ACLS Survey (ABCD) – 23
Airway Management – 24
Basic Airway Adjuncts
Basic Airway Technique
Advanced Airway Adjuncts
Routes of Access – 28
Intravenous Route
Intraosseous Route
Pharmacological Tools – 29
Self-Assessment for ACLS – 30
Principles of Early Defibrillation . . . . . . . 31
Keys to Using an Automated External Defibrillator – 32
Criteria to Apply AED
Basic AED Operation
4 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Systems of Care . . . . . . . 34
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – 35
Initiating the Chain of Survival
Post-Cardiac Arrest Care – 36
Therapeutic Hypothermia
Optimization of Hemodynamics and Ventilation
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Neurologic Care
Acute Coronary Syndrome – 37
Goals of ACS Treatment
Acute Stroke – 38
Goals of Acute Ischemic Stroke Care
The Resuscitation Team – 39
Education, Implementation, Teams – 40
Self-Assessment for Systems of Care – 41 
ACLS Cases . . . . . . . 42
Respiratory Arrest – 42
Ventricular Fibrillation and Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia – 46
Pulseless Electrical Activity and Asystole – 48
Post-Cardiac Arrest Care – 52
Blood Pressure Support and Vasopressors
Airway Management
Symptomatic Bradycardia – 55
Tachycardia – 58
Symptomatic Tachycardia
Stable and Unstable Tachycardia
Acute Coronary Syndrome – 62
Acute Stroke – 64
Self-Assessment for ACLS Cases – 68
ACLS Essentials . . . . . . . 71
Additional Tools . . . . . . . 72
MediCode – 72
CertAlert+ – 72
ACLS Review Questions . . . . . . . 73
5 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
The goal of Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) is to achieve the best possible outcome 
for individuals who are experiencing a life-threatening event. ACLS is a series of evidence-based 
responses simple enough to be committed to memory and recalled under moments of stress. These 
ACLS protocols have been developed through research, patient case studies, clinical studies, and 
opinions of experts in the field. The gold standard in the United States and other countries is the 
course curriculum published by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). 
Previously, the ILCOR published periodic updates to their Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) 
and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) guidelines on a five-year cycle, with the most recent 
update published in 2020. Moving forward, the ILCOR will no longer wait five years between updates; 
instead, it will maintain the most up-to-date recommendations online at ECCguidelines.heart.org. 
Health care providers are recommended to supplement the materials presented in this handbook 
with the guidelines published by the ILCOR and refer to the most current interventions and 
rationales throughout their study of ACLS.
While ACLS providers should always be mindful of 
timeliness, it is important to provide the intervention that 
most appropriately fits the needs of the individual. Proper 
utilization of ACLS requires rapid and accurate assessment 
of the individual’s condition. This not only applies to the 
provider’s initial assessment of an individual in distress, 
but also to the reassessment throughout the course of 
treatment with ACLS.
ACLS protocols assume that the provider may not have all 
of the information needed from the individual or all of the 
resources needed to properly use ACLS in all cases. For 
example, if a provider is utilizing ACLS on the side of the 
road, they will not have access to sophisticated devices to 
measure breathing or arterial blood pressure. Nevertheless, 
in such situations, ACLS providers have the framework to 
provide the best possible care in the given circumstances. 
ACLS algorithms are based on past performances and 
results in similar life-threatening cases and are intended to achieve the best possible outcome for the 
individual during emergencies. The foundation of all algorithms involves the systematic approach of 
the BLS Survey and the ACLS Survey (using steps ABCD) that you will find later in this handbook.
Refer to the Basic Life Support (BLS) 
Provider Handbook, also Presented by 
the Save a Life Initiative, for a more 
comprehensive review of the BLS 
Survey. This handbook specifically 
covers ACLS algorithms and only 
briefly describes BLS. All ACLS 
providers are presumed capable of 
performing BLS correctly. While this 
handbook covers BLS basics, it 
is essential that ACLS providers be 
proficient in BLS first.
6 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Determining whether an individual is conscious or unconscious can be done very quickly. If you 
notice someone in distress, lying down in a public place, or possibly injured, call out to them. 
If the individual is unconscious, then start with the BLS 
Survey (Figure 20) and move on to the ACLS Survey (Figure 9). 
If they are conscious and responsive, obtain consent to 
provide care and continue assessment and questioning to 
determine next steps. 
• Make sure the scene is safe before 
approaching the individual and 
conducting the BLS or ACLS Survey. 
• When encountering an individual 
who is “down,” the first assessment to 
make is whether they are conscious or 
7 ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support
The ILCOR has updated the Basic Life Support (BLS) course over the years as new research in cardiac 
care has become available. Cardiac arrest continues to be a leading cause of death in the United 
States. BLS guidelines have changed dramatically, and the elements of BLS continue to be some of 
the most important steps in initial treatment. General concepts of BLS include: 
• Quickly starting the Chain of Survival.
• Delivering high-quality